Top 10 Interview Questions and Answers in SVN (Subversion)


  • What is SVN?

  • What is “branch” , “Tag” and “Trunk” in SVN ?

  • what do you mean by “Synchronizing with Repository” ? How is it different from “Update” ?

  • Difference between Update and Commit ?

  • How to apply a patch in SVN ?

  • What if SVN Update gives Merge Conflicts and you just want your local files to be overriden with the repository versions ?

  • trunk vs branch vs tag in subversion or SVN

  • What is the process to take backuop and restore in SVN?

  • How to setup SVN?

  • How to setup authentication in SVN?

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Apache Ant Interview Questions and Answers


  • Explain the concepts and capabilities of ANT?

  • Explain how to start to use Ant and provide a “Hello World” ant script?

  • Explain how to set classpath in ant?

  • How does ant read properties? How to set my property system?

  • Explain how to modify properties in ant?

  • Explain how to use Runtime in ant?

  • How can I use ant to run a Java application?

  • Explain how to debug my ant script?

  • How can I write my own ant task?

  • Explain how to use ant-contrib tasks?

  • Explain how to make ant user interactive?

  • Explain using ANT and give an small example?

  • How to delete files from a directory if it exists?

  • How to loop on a list or fileset?

  • Why do I get en exception when I use location=”D:\\Code\\include” as

  • attribute of includepath?

  • Can I put the contents of a classpath or fileset into a property?

  • How can I use ant to run a Java application?

  • How to exclude multi directories in copy or delete task?

  • How to use Runtime in ant?

  • How to copy files without extention?

  • How to hide password input?

  • What are the system requirements for Apache Ant?

  • What is IVY?

  • Difference between Ant 1.6 Vs 1.7 Vs 1.8 and 1.9?

  • How we can echo message in Ant?

  • What is dependency? How it is used into ant? What is its use?

  • How we can set the  PATH environment variable of ant?

  • Ant Vs Maven Vs Make

  • what is taskdef in ANT ?

  • What does token filter do?

  • Which separator characters are used in the path-like structures in Ant?

  • What is the purpose of nested argument in Ant build files?

  • Write some sample java “Hello world” program and Now write an Ant build file to compile, jar and javadoc the package.

  • Write a sample build file to integrate with Junit

  • Write a sample build file to integrate with PMD tools

  • How to I precompile Java Server Pages (JSPs)?

  • How do I realize os–specific configurations?

  • How do I add an external task that I’ve written to the page “External Tools and Tasks”?

  • How do I create new tasks?

  • How do I pass parameters from the command line to my build file?

  • How do I redirect standard input or standard output in the <exec> task?

  • How do I get started to use ant? Can you give me a “Hello World” ant script?

  • How to delete files from a directory if it exists? Write a sample build file?

  • How to use ant-contrib tasks? Write a sample build file for the same.

  • How do I debug my ant script?

  • How to use Runtime in ant?

  • Write a sample build file for How to copy files without extention?

  • Explain how to set classpath in ant?

  • How can I use ant to run a Java application? Write a sample program for the same

Top Interview Questions and Answers of Jenkins


  • What is continuous integration?

  • Jenkins Continuous integration API features?

  • Advantages of jenkins?

  • Jenkins plugins?

  • Requirements for using Jenkins?

  • Installing Jenkins on Ubuntu and RHEL?

  • Process to take Jenkins backup and copying files?

  • Top 20 Jenkins and Useful Plugins?

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Basics of Git and Gerrit | Git & Gerrit Overview | Git and Gerrit Concept


Git & Gerrit

  • As per British English, Git means “unpleasant person”. The inspiration of designing Git is taken from “BitKeeper” and “Monotone”. 
  • Both are distributed revision control system. Git was originally designed as a low level version control system engine and on top of this Cogito and StGIT(Stacked Git) is developed. StGIT is a Python application that provides functionality similar to quilt
  • Git is a highly performant free and open source distributed version control system as compare and contrast to other centralized version control systems such as CVS, SVN, ClearCase, and Perforce. 
  • It was initially designed and developed by Linus Torvalds for Linux kernel development in 2005.
  • As per the analysis corresponding to Eclipse IDE users, Git has reported 30% adoption as of 2013 in software industry for VCS(Version Control System)/RCS(Revision Control System)/SCM(Source code management).
  • The Stable release of Git is released on August 23, 2013 which is of version 1.8.4. Its Initial release was introduced in the 7th april 2005 . Originally Git is developed in “C”.


  • Gerrit is a free, web-based review tool developed by Google for Android. 
  • It is developed with a git based workflow in mind. It acts as a firewall in front of a Git repository. 
  • Software developers working in a team can review each other’s changes/modifications on their source code using a web browser and approve or reject those changes. 
  • Gerrit works on “Change”s. A change is a set of modifications to various files in your repository to accomplish a task. It is essentially one large git commit with all the necessary changes which can be both built and tested. 
  • It integrates closely with Git, a distributed version control system. 
  • It was developed at Google by Shawn Pearce (founder of JGit) for the development of the Android project. Gerrit uses Google Web Toolkit to generate front-end JavaScript code from Java source. 
  • It is a SSH server. 
  • Gerrit centralizes the distributed nature of Git, while maintaining the advantages of a DVCS, by imposing a centralized workflow. 
  • Large corporations such as SAP, Sony Mobile, Qualcomm and many other enterprises, organisations and non affiliated individuals/volunteers contributed to the review and development of the code-base.
  • The Stable release of Gerrit is released on September 18, 2013 which is of version 2.7.   
  • Originally this tool was written in Python and now this tool is written in Java, Servlet and GWT. 
  • This is a code review tool and now Apache is having its license.
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Why Git is Better than X | Git or X


Cheap Local Branching

svn perforce

Everything is Local

bzr svn perforce

Git is Fast

hg bzr svn perforce

The Staging Area

svn perforce


svn perforce

Any Workflow

hg svn perforce



Easy to Learn

hg bzr svn perforce

Git is the new standard

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Git Troubleshooting | Git Troubleshooting Techniques



git push -u origin –all –verbose

git config –list





git push

git config --global http.postBuffer

There are useful to debug, long running Git Commands or Git Commands that seem to be hanged for some reason,

Git has an in-built functionality for us to peek into what is running behind the scenes of a git command, just add GIT_TRACE=1 before ANY git command to get additional info, for example:

Other Flags that we can use are : GIT_CURL_VERBOSE=1, -v or –verbose

[server@user sp-server-branches]$ GIT_TRACE=1 git clone

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All Possible Interview Questions on Git, Github and Gitlab


  • What is GIT?
  • What is a repository in GIT?
  • What is the command you can use to write a commit message?
  • What is the difference between GIT and SVN and other CM systems?
    • Answers –
      • Cheap Local Branching
      • Everything is Local
      • Git is Fast
      • Git is Small
      • The Staging Area
      • Distributed
      • Any Workflow
      • Easy to Learn
      • Git is the new standard
  • What are the advantages of using GIT?
  • What language is used in GIT?
  • What is the function of ‘GIT PUSH’ in GIT?
  • Why GIT better than Subversion?
  • What is “Staging Area” or “Index” in GIT?
  • What is GIT stash?
  • What is GIT stash drop?
  • How will you know in GIT if a branch has been already merged into master?
  • What is the function of git clone?
  • What is the function of ‘git config’?
  • What does commit object contain?
  • How can you create a repository in Git?
  • What is ‘head’ in git and how many heads can be created in a repository?
  • What is the purpose of branching in GIT?
  • What is the common branching pattern in GIT?
  • How can you bring a new feature in the main branch?
  • What is a ‘conflict’ in git?
  • How can conflict in git resolved?
  • To delete a branch what is the command that is used?
  • What is another option for merging in git?
  • What is the syntax for “Rebasing” in Git?
  • What is the difference between ‘git remote’ and ‘git clone’?
  • What is GIT version control?
  • Mention some of the best graphical GIT client for LINUX?
  • What is Subgit? Why to use Subgit?
  • What is the function of ‘git diff ’ in git?
  • What is ‘git status’ is used for?
  • What is the difference between the ‘git diff ’and ‘git status’?
  • What is the function of ‘git checkout’ in git?
  • What is the function of ‘git rm’?
  • What is the function of ‘git stash apply’?
  • What is the use of ‘git log’?
  • What is ‘git add’ is used for?
  • What is the function of ‘git reset’?
  • What is git Is-tree?
  • How git instaweb is used?
  • What does ‘hooks’ consist of in git?
  • Explain what is commit message?
  • How can you fix a broken commit?
  • What is ‘bare repository’ in GIT?
  • How do you start Git and what is the process called?
  • How do you put your local repository (repo) on the GitHub server?
  • How to delete the working branch?
  • What as the strength and weaknesses of the software?
  • But I am quite happy with Subversion (SVN). What is all this fuss about? Is there a substantial trend for distributed versioning control systems (DVCS)?
  • Isn’t DVCS something for small teams and startups? I am working in a very big company. We value established things way more than the cutting edge stuff, that may not be here to stay.
  • Okay. Let’s say we go with DVCS. Why should I take git and not mercurial?
  • I like, that git allows our developers to host the complete repository on his local machine. That makes software development faster. So why do
  • you I need Stash on top?
  • How do you use this rights management with Stash? How does it work? Will developers only get have a repository? Is that still functional then?
  • What is a pull request? What is this for? Aren’t we sharing all code with all developers and let everyone do what he wants? Is that only for
  • hierachical software development methods?
  • How would you summarize the advantages of Stash in short?
  • What is the one reason, that your customers give Atlassian today on why they purchase Stash?
  • Can you offer us a small sneak peak into your upcoming next releases? Is there anything, that you can share first hand with us?
  • What is your general roadmap for stash? Where do you want to position it near and long term?
  • Do you ultimately plan to support Mercurial? When is a good time to buy Stash, if I run with hg at the moment?
  • Why should I go for Stash in favor of GitHub Enterprise or RhodeCode?
  • Why is Stash a separated product and not part of Bitbucket. I could imagine seeing Bitbucket Enterprise resembling GitHub Enterprise.
  • Is Atlassian using Stash internally in software development? If not, why not?
  • Wouldn’t it be interesting to combine Fisheye, Crucible and Stash in one product?
  • What is the difference between GIT and SVN?
  • What are the advantages of using GIT over other tools?
  • What is GIT stash?
  • What does commit object contain?
  • How can conflict in git resolved?
  • What is the difference between ‘git remote’ and ‘git clone’?
  • Mention some of the best graphical GIT client for LINUX?
  • What does ‘hooks’ consist of in git?
  • What is ‘bare repository’ in GIT?
  • Add a line to the some.txt file and then throw out all changes since the last commit.
  • Why GIT better than Subversion?
  • How to troubleshoot Git?
  • How to troubleshoot GitLab?
  • How to troubleshoot Github?
  • How to take Gitlab backup
  • What is Git Objects? explain about Tree, blob, commit, tag, branch objects?
  • How git Object storage works?
  • What is SHA1?
  • Introduction to the GitHub platform
  • github Distributed version control synchronization
  • github Project management and repository integration
  • github Multiple remotes and Fork maintenance
  • github Remote repository interaction and dependencies
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Chef Open Training | Chef Training | Chef Course | Online | Classroom


While these training materials are helpful, they aren’t meant to replace the official documentation, or instructor-led courses.

These materials are the same as those used during our public and private training sessions. You can find our public schedule of classes and other events on the Events Page. Let us know if you’d like to see a class offered in your area.

The training materials are published under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License (CC BY-SA 3.0 US) and the Apache License, Version 2.0.

The link to the training materials is here:

This directory contains:

  • Chef-Fundamentals.pdf – PDF of slides used in the three-day Chef Fundamentals class
  • Chef-Introductory-Workshop.pdf – PDF of the slides used in the one-day Introductory Chef Workshop

The training materials on this site are updated when there are significant changes to the classes we offer.

If you are interested in a Chef quickstart guide, check out

This guide takes you from “zero to first converge” in 3 easy steps:

  1. Set up your workstation
  2. Set up a local Chef cookbook rep
  3. Converge your first node
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Chef configuration management | Chef Training | Chef Course | Online | Classroom

Chef Training

This course aims to prepare key development, engineering, and operations staff to use Chef to write infrastructure. Each of the core units in the course has hands on exercises to reinforce the material. You will learn Chef by using it. At the end of the class, students will have a code repository that can be used and modified to solve real business problems.

Click Here

Course agenda:

Day 1:

  • What Is Configuration Management?
  • Why You Need a Configuration Management Tool to Automate IT
  • What Is Chef?
  • Why Chef Might Be a Good Tool for Your Enterprise
  • Where Do We Go From Here?
  • Chef Development Tools
    • Install and Configuration Chef Development Tools on Windows
    • Install and Configuration Chef Development Tools on Linux
  • Overview of Ruby
  • Ruby Syntax and Examples
  • Chef Syntax and Examples
  • Working with Knife
  • Writing First Chef Recipe
  • Chef and Its Terminology
    • Attributes
    • Metadata
    • Recipes
    • Resources
    • Templates
    • Definitions
    • Recipes
    • Writing recipes
    • Cookbook Dependencies
    • Controlling Impotency
    • Notifications
    • Template Variables

Day 2:

  • Cookbooks
  • Using Cookbooks
  • Windows – IIS, MSI, Exe, Zip files, Tomcat,
  • Linux – RPM, Shell Script, Yum Repos,
  • Common – SVN, Vagrant, Test Kitchen
  • Introducing Vagrant & Virtualbox
  • Introducing Test Kitchen
  • Spinning up your first Virtual Machine
  • Introducing OpsCode
  • Developing a Cookbooks
    • Developing Your First Cookbook
    • Writing a Recipe
    • Creating the Index File
    • Changing the Metadata
    • Uploading the Cookbook
    • Running the Cookbook
    • Add an Attribute
    • Add a Resource to the Default Recipe
    • Add the Template File
    • Uploading and Running the Cookbook
    • Using Environments
  • Modeling your infrastructure
    • Roles
    • Implementing a role
    • Determining which recipes you need
    • Applying recipes to roles
    • Mapping your roles to nodes
    • Environments
    • Organizing your configuration data

Day 3:

  • Cloud Provisioning Using Chef
    • Provisioning Using Vagrant and Chef
    • Providers and Provisioners
    • Installing Vagrant
    • Configuring Vagrant
    • Vagrant Provisioning Using Chef
    • AWS and Chef Provisioning Using Vagrant
    • Provisioning Using Knife
  • Troubleshooting and Debugging
    • Chef Troubleshooting and Debugging
    • Debugging Chef Client Run
    • Debugging Recipes Using Logs
    • Debugging Recipes Using Chef Shell
    • Troubleshooting Chef Client
  • Recipe Inclusion
  • Data Bags
  • Search Roles
  • Configuring Services like Apache
  • Deployment using chef
    • Looking at your application deployment cookbook
    • Deployment using zip/tar files. E.g: Apache Tomcat deployment and configured as service.
    • Windows – Configuring Services like IIS
    • Dependencies Management
  • Integrating with the Cloud
    • Amazon EC2
    • Rackspace Cloud
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Wise Installation Studio/Express Training & Courses, Online and Classroom by skilled trainers in India


scmGalaxy is a community initiatives based on Software configuration management that helps community members to optimize their software development process, Software Development Life Cycle optimization, Agile Methodologies and improve productivity across all aspects of Java development, including Build Scripts, Testing, Issue Tracking, Continuous Integration, Code Quality and more. scmGalaxy group that helps organisations optimize their software development process. We provide consulting, training and mentoring services in Agile Development Practices such as Version Management, Continuous Integration, Build Management, Test-Driven Development, Acceptance-Test Driven Development, Build Automation, Code Quality Practices and Automated Testing.

We provide job oriented training in the area of Configuration management, Build and Release Engineering. Candidates with engineering or software background and looking to either start or change their career to Build and Release Engineering, would benefit most from this training. Instructor-led training course offered in India, Bangalore, Delhi, Pune, Mumbai and Hydrabad. Instructor is an expert in Software configuration management, Build and release engineering with more than 15 years industry experience in india.The Goal of the course make the training attendants equip with all the concepts of build and release engineering.

Contact us at

Course Objectives
To bring your team up to speed with agile development, We can also run the from Continuous Integration to Continuous Delivery with autoamted course within your premises.

Course Schedule
This course is an intensive 1-day & 2-day workshop with a mixture of teaching and lab exercises. Currently, this course is offered exclusively as an on-site course. Please contact us for more details.

This is a hands-on, practical course designed to teach specialised skills for real-world development situations. It is thus primarily aimed at a SCM Engineer, Build/Release Engineer and developer audience.

The course is modular and flexible – depending on specific student needs and requests. Through our trainings, you benefit from the wide experience and architectural expertise of our team. We bring that experience to you in an highly interactive, intensely hands-on setting.

We assume participants have a reasonable understanding of Development in any language as well as a basic understanding of the Software Development Life Cycle.

Lab Work
All our courses are above all practical in nature. We believe that the best way to learn is by doing. So the course contains approximately 80% lab work.

Learning Resources
Each registrant will receive a copy of the student notes and lab solutions, a certificate of completion, and a CD containing all the tools covered in the course and CD containing all the tools covered in the course.

Contact Us
This course is provided on-site, and can be tailored to your particular requirements. If you would like our training delivered at your premises, or for any additional information please contact us. Please email us at | +91 700 483 5930 | Skype – scmGalaxy

Course outline

The basic course program is outlined here:

Chapter 1: Installing Wise Installation Studio and Wise Installation Express

  • Introduction
  • System Requirements
  • Connecting to a Wise Software Repository
  • Installing an Upgrade
  • Installing Wise Installation Studio or Wise Installation Express
  • Installing the Windows Installer Editor Language Pack
  • Starting the Software
  • Converting an Evaluation Version to a Production Version
  • Registering Your Software

Chapter 2: Basic Tutorial: Creating a Windows Installer Installation

  • Create a New Installation Project
  • Open a Project and Set Options
  • Enter Product Details and General Information
  • Create and Organize Features
  • Assemble the Installation
  • Add Files to the Installation
  • Add Registry Keys
  • Add a Shortcut
  • Create a File Association
  • Customize the Installation’s Behavior on the Destination Computer
  • Set System Requirements
  • Select Dialogs That Appear to End Users
  • Configure Installation Types
  • Define Releases
  • Create Releases
  • Customize the Demo Release Properties
  • Compile and Test the Installation

Chapter 3: Advanced Tutorial: Using MSI Script in a Windows Installer Installation

  • Call a DLL With a Custom Action
  • Set a Directory With a Custom Action
  • Call an EXE With a Custom Action
  • Performing Advanced Tasks

Chapter 4: Tutorial: Creating a Windows Installer Installation in Visual Studio

  • Integrated Editor
  • Open the C# QuickFacts Solution and Create an Installation Project
  • Open the Installation Project and Set Options
  • Enter Product Details and General Information
  • Add Files to the Installation
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