Define “Here Document” in PHP

Here Document-

PHP here document is another way of displaying text. A here document is just some text inserted directly in a PHP page.


echo <<< Token

Where Token is word that begins and ends the here document.


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Declaring Variable and Re-declaring Variables in JavaScript

Declaring Variable

Declaring Variable Rule

  • Variable can contain a combination of letters, digits, underscores ( _ ), and
  • dollar signs ( $ ).
  • Must begin with a letter A-Z or a-z or underscore or dollar sign
  • A variable name cannot start with a number
  • Must not contain any space characters
  • JavaScript is case-sensitive
  • Can‟t use reserved keywords

Declaring Variable

A variable declared without a value will have the value undefined

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List of keywords and reserved words in JavaScript

Keyword or Reserved words


In JavaScript, we do not need to specify the type of the variable because it is dynamically used by the JavaScript engine.
We can use var data type. It can hold any type of data like String, Number, Boolean, etc.

Primitive Data Type Non-Primitive Data type

String Object
Number Array
Boolean RegExp

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CSS tutorial (CSS Border-radius)

CSS border-property:- The css property sets the rounded borders and provides the rounded corners around an element, tag, or div. It defines the radius of the corners of an element.

It is shorthand for border top-left-radius, border-top-right, border-bottom- right-radius and border-bottom-left-radius. It gives the rounded shape to the corners of the border of an element. We can specify the border for all four corners of the box in a single declaration using the border-radius. The values of this property can be defined in percentage or length units.If the bottom-left value is omitted, then it will be same as the top-right. If the value of bottom-right is eliminated, then it will be same as the top-left. Similarly, if top-right is eliminated, then it will be the same as top-left.

Let’s see what happens when we provide a single value, two values, three values, and four values to this property.

  • If we provide a single value (such as border-radius: 30px;) to this property, it will set all corners to the same value.
  • When we specify two values (such as border-radius: 20% 10% 😉, then the first value will be used for the top-left and bottom-right corners, and the second value will be used for the top-right and bottom-left corners.
  • When we use three values (such as border-radius: 10% 30% 20%;) then the first value will be used for the top-left corner, the second value will be applied on top-right, and bottom-left corners and the third value will be applied to the bottom-right corner.
  • Similarly, when this property has four values (border-radius: 10% 30% 20% 40%;) then the first value will be the radius of top-left, the second value will be used for the top-right, the third value will be applied on bottom-right, and the fourth value is used for bottom-left.


Border-radius for specific corners:-

It sets the border radius for the top-left corner.

Example:- border-top-right-radius

It sets the border-radius for the top-right corner.

Example- border-bottom-right-radius

It sets the border-radius for the bottom-right corner.

Example- border-bottom-left-radius

It sets the border-radius for the bottom-left corner.

We can specify seprate horizontal and vertical values by using the slash(/) symbol. The values before the slash (/) is used for the horizontal radius and the values after the slash(/) are for the vertical radius.

There is an example given below using the slash(/) symbol.


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Difference Between echo and print in PHP


This statement is used to output the data to the screen or printing text on

Ex: –

echo with HTML
echo with Variables


This is very similar to echo statement a way of displaying text.


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CSS tutorial part-3

CSS Border:-

The CSS border is a property is used to set the border on an element.

The CSS border properties are use to specify the style, color and size of the border of an element. The CSS border properties are given below

  • border-style
  • border-color
  • border-width
  • border-radius

1.CSS border-style:- The Border style property is used to specify the border type which you want to display on the web page.

There are some border style values which are commenly used for boder-style property. Try it yourself:-

2. CSS border-width:- This property is used to set the border’s width. It is set in pixels. we can also use the one of the three pre-defined values, thin, medium or thick to set the width of the border. Example:-

3. CSS border-colour:- This property is used to set the border color. There are methods to set the color of the border.

  1. Name: It specifies the color name. For example:”red”.
  2. RGB: It specifies the RGB value of the color. For example: “rgb(255,0,0)”.
  3. Hex: It specifies the hex value of the color. For example: “#ff0000”

There is also a border color named “transparent”. If the border color is not set it is inherited from the color property of the element.

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HTML Latest Version

HTML 5 enables to create more interactive websites by embedding audio, video and graphics on the web page.

The purpose of HTML5 is primarily to make it easier for web developers.

New features:

  • Browser
  • Geolocation
  • Offline Application Cache
  • Web Storage
  • Error Handling
  • New Application Programming Interface (API)
  • New Structure

Application Programming Interface

  • 2D drawing on a web page
  • Drag and Drop
  • Timed Medial Playback
  • Browser History Management

New Structure

  • <article>
  • <aside>
  • <header>
  • <details>
  • <dialog>

and more………….

<!DOCTYPE html>
		<title> Hello </title>
		<h1> Body of Page </h1>

DOCTYPE declaration

<!DOCTYPE html>

It is an instruction to the web browser about what version of HTML the page is written in.

The <!DOCTYPE> declaration is not case sensitive.

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CSS tutorial part-2

CSS Selector:-

CSS selector are used to select those content which we want to style. CSS selector is used to select HTML elements according to its id, class, type, attribute etc.

Types of CSS selector:-

  1. CSS element selector
  2. CSS Id selector
  3. CSS Class selector
  4. CSS universal selector
  5. CSS Group selector
  1. Css Element selector:- CSS element selector selects the HTML element by name.
  2. CSS Id Selector:- The Id selector selects the id attributes of an HTML element to select a specific element. An id is always unique within the page so it is chosen to select a single, unique element.
  3. CSS Class Selector:- It select the HTML elements with a specific class attribute. It is used with a period character .(full stop symbol) followed by the class name.
  4. CSS Universal Selector:- The universal selector is used as a wildcard character. It selects all elements on the page.
  5. CSS Group Selector:- It is used on those elements which have same style definations. Grouping selector is used to minimize the code. Commas are used to separate each selector in grouping.

CSS Comments:- CSS comments are generally written to explain your code. It is very helpful fir the users who reads your code so that they can easily understand the code. Comments are ignored by the browsers. Comments are the single line or multiple line statements and written in /*……..*/ .

CSS Background:- This property is used to define the backgroud effects on elements. There are 5 CSS background properties that affect the HTML elements.

  1. background-color
  2. background-image
  3. background-repeat
  4. background-attachment
  1. CSS Background-color:- This property is used to specify the background color of element.

You can set the background color like this:

2.CSS background-image:- The background-image property is used to set an image as a background of an element. By default the image covers the entire element. Example:-

3. CSS background-repeat:- BY default,

the background-image property repeats the background image horizontally and vertically. Some images are repeated only horizontally or vertically.

The background looks better if the image repeated horizontally only.

4. CSS background-attachment:- Thisproperty is used to specify if the background image is fixed or scroll with the rest of the page in browser window. If you set fixed the background image then the image will not move during scrolling in the browser. example:-

5.CSS background-position:- The background-position property is used to define the initial position of the background image. By default, the background image is placed on the top-left of the webpage. we can set the following positions:-

  1. centre
  2. top
  3. bottom
  4. left
  5. right
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HTML 4.01

HTML 4.01 Strict


HTML 4.01 Transitional

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN” “”>

HTML 4.01 Frameset

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN” “”>

		<title> Hello </title>
		<h1> Body of Page </h1>

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