HTML provides a way of displaying Web pages with text and images or multimedia content. HTML is not a programming language, but a markup language. An HTML file is a text file containing small markup tags. The markup tags tell the Web browser, such as Mozila Firefox or Google Chrome, how to display the page. An HTML file must have an htm or html file extension. HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language.

HTML pages are of two types:

Static Pages – Static pages, as the name indicates, comprise static content (text or images). So you can only see the contents of a web page without being able to have any interaction with it.

Dynamic Pages – Dynamic pages are those where the content of the web page depend on user input. So interaction with the user is required in order to display the web page. For example, consider a web page which requires a number to be entered from the user in order to find out if it is even or odd. When the user enters the number and clicks on the appropriate button, the number is sent to the web server, which in turn returns the result to the user in an HTML page.


A tag is a bit of text that acts as a point demarcation. To create a tag, HTML gives certain characters special meaning: the angle brackets < and >.

  Putting characters within angle brackets creates a tag.

	<h1> A heading </h1>

There are two tags:

Start tag or opening tag and End tag or closing tag. An end tag always matches a start tag, except that it has an extra forward slash after the opening angle bracket.

  <h1> A heading </h1>

Type of Tag

Container Tag – Which has opening and closing Tag.
Ex: –
<html> ……. </html>
<head> ……. </head>
<body> ……. </body>

Empty Tag – which has only opening tag.
Ex: –


The combination of a start and end tags define an element. Everything between the two tags is referred to as the contents of the element.

    <h1> A heading </h1>


Attributes provide additional information about the contents of an element. They appear on the opening tag of the element and are made up of two parts: – a name and a value, separated by an equals sign.

<p lang = “en-us”>Paragraph in English </p>

The attribute name indicates what kind of extra information you are supplying about the element’s content. It should be written in lowercase.

The value is the information or setting for the attribute. It should be placed in double quotes. Different attributes can have different values.

 In this example an attribute called lang is used to indicate the language used in this element. The value of this attribute on this page specifies it is in US English.

Note: – HTML5 allows you to use uppercase attribute names and omit the quote marks, but this is not recommended.


<HTML> is a starting tag. To delimit the text inside, add a closing tag by adding a forward slash “/” to the starting tag. Most but not all tags have a closing tag. It is necessary to write the code for an HTML page between <HTML> and </HTML>. This <HTML> tells the browser is ‘this is the start of an HTML document’ and </HTML> ‘this is the end of an HTML document’.






Head Tag

Before the <body> element you will often see a <head> element. This contains information about the page, rather than information that is shown within the main part of the browser. You will usually find a <title> element inside the <head> element. <head> is opening head tag and </head> is closing head tag.



  <title> Hello </title>



Title Tag

The contents of the <title> element are either shown in the top of the browser, above where you usually type in the URL of the page you want to visit, or on the tab for that page (if your browser uses tabs to allow you to view multiple pages at the same time). <title> is opening title tag and </title> closing title tag.



  <title> Hello </title>



Body Tag

Everything inside this element is shown inside the main browser window.  <body> is opening body tag and </body> is closing tag.



  <title> Hello </title>



  <h1> Body of Page </h1>




HTML 2.01995
HTML 3.21997
HTML 4.011999
HTML 52014

HTML 4.01

HTML 4.01 Strict

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd”>

HTML 4.01 Transitional

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd”>

HTML 4.01 Frameset

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN” “http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd”>


HTML 5 enables to create more interactive websites by embedding audio, video and graphics on the web page.

The purpose of HTML5 is primarily to make it easier for web developers.

New features: –Browser Support –Geolocation –Offline Application Cache –Web Storage –Error Handling –New Application Programming Interface (API) –New Structure

Application Programming Interface

•2D drawing on a web page

•Drag and Drop

•Timed Media Playback

•Browser History Management

New Structure





DOCTYPE declaration

<!DOCTYPE html>

It is an instruction to the web browser about what version of HTML the page is written in.

The <!DOCTYPE> declaration is not case sensitive.


The <br> tag in the HTML code inserts a line break in the text.


Heading defines the format and structure of a document. There are six heading tag: – •<h1> …… </h1> •<h2> …… </h2> •<h3> …… </h3> •<h4> …… </h4> •<h5> …… </h5> •<h6> …… </h6>

Any text inside these tags is displayed differently depending on the heading number.

Note : – 1.<h1>…… </h1> is largest heading tag and <h6>……. </h6> is smallest. 2.Heading get their own line on the web pages by starting from a new line.


The <p> tag is used to create new paragraph on web page. It has a closing tag </p> which is optional because a paragraph automatically ends when we start another paragraph.

<p> ………………………. </p>

Note : – –Number of line in a paragraph depends on the size of web browser window. –If we resize the browser window, the number of lines in this paragraph will change.


A subscript is a text that appears smaller than a regular text.

The <sub>….. </sub> tag is used to create a subscript on a web page.


A Superscript is a text that appears smaller size above the regular text.

The <sup>…… </sup> tag is used to create a subscript on a web page.

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Brief Description about Laravel App directory

Laravel App Directory

The app directory has the base code for the application. The app directory contains variety of  directories like console,Http,providers etc. These directories are created by the make artisan command which we use to generate classes.

The directories inside app directory are:-

1.Broadcasting Directory

2.Console Directory

3.Events Directory

4.Exception Directory

5.Http Directory

6.Jobs Directory

7.Listners Directory

8.Mail Directory

9.Notification Directory

10.Policies Directory

11.Providers Directory

12.Rules Directory

1.Broadcasting Directory:- All the broadcasting channels are stored in broadcasting Director. These channels are generated by make:model command. This directory doesn’t exist by default. It will be created when we create our first channel.

2.Console Directory:- The console directory contains all of the project artisian commands for the application. These commands are generated by using make:command command. This directory is also house for krenal.php where custom artisian commands are registered and tasks are defined.

3.Events Directory:-The event directory holds the events files that the laravel application may pop up. This directory doesn’t exist by default, but will be created by event:generate and make:event Artisian commands.

4.Exception Directory:-This directory holds all the exception handling files. The exception thrown by the application is stored in this directory. We can customize how the exceptions are logged or rendered by modifying the handler class in the directory.

5.Http directory:- This directory contains controllers,middlewares, and form requests. All of the logic to handle requests entering your application will be placed in this directory.

6.Jobs Directory:- This directory doesn’t exist by default. It will created by make:job Artisan command. The job directory holds all lineup jobs in this directory.

 7.Listners Directory:- This directory doesn’t exist by default. It will created by event:generate or make:listeners Artisan command. This directory contains the classes that handle your events.

8.Mail Directory:- :- This directory doesn’t exist by default. It will created by make:mail Artisan command.This directory holds all the emails send by th e laravel project.

9.Notification Directory:- This directory doesn’t exist by default. It will created by make:notification Artisian command.This directory conatins all of the transactional notification that are sent by your application.

10.Policies Directory:- This directory doesn’t exist by default. It will created by make:policy Artisian command. This directory holds the different policies of your laravel project.

11.Providers Directory:- This directory is used for containing containing different service providers.

12.Rules Directory:- This directory doesn’t exist by default. It will created by make:rule Artisian command. The rules directory contains the custom validation rule objects for your application. Rules are used to encapsulate complicated validation logic in a simple object.

CRUD Operation Prerequisites.

Before performing CRUD operations we need to do some of the basic tasks. These includes:- 1. Installing Laravel 2. Creating Laravel Project 3. Making Model 4. Migrating After that we are good to go for performing the operation.

Laravel the most popular PHP-based framework for creating database-driven apps is based on the MVC (Model-View-Controller) architecture and can be used for easily creating apps for making CRUD (Create, Retrieve, Update, Delete) operations in the database.

1. Installing Laravel The first and foremost thing we need to have Laravel and composer installed in our system. the command for installation is
composer global require “laravel/installer=~1.1”
if this does not works then we could just write
composer global require “laravel/installer”
and it would install the file.
2. Creating Laravel Project Then we need to create a project and for this, we need to type
composer create-project –prefer-dist laravel/laravel project_name “5.8.*”
If this does not works then we could just write
composer create-project –prefer-dist laravel/laravel project_name
it would create a Laravel project named blog (with the latest version).

3. Making Model and Migrating After the project is created we need to create the Model. For this we use command.

$ php artisan make:model Model_name -mcr or $ php artisan make:model Model_name -a

(Note:- Model name should begin with a capital letter) Here mcr is (migration controller resources) we can use m/c/r separately but for better convenience, we use a which can equivalently be used in place of “mcr”.

After the model is created we need to create the database and attach it. We can instruct for the database creation through codes or we can go to PHPMyAdmin, and there we can create the database and provide the name of the database in the .env file

After database creation, we need to migrate. Migrations allow to add or drop fields in the database without deleting the records already present. for this we use $ php artisan migrate We could also refresh migration using $ php artisan migrate:refresh

All the prerequisites to perform CRUD operations are completed and are ready to go. Now we can move to views to create the Html page and perform desired CRUD operations.

For CRUD Operation Detailed Explanation with Example. https://www.scmgalaxy.com/tutorials/crud-operation-detailed-explaination-with-example/

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