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- Since the beginning of the course, all the examples presented were run
- using a user account.
- A user account consists of a username and a password. This identifies the
- user on the system and, hence, maintains security and accountability.
- Linux also creates groupsfor each user account. A group may contain one or
- more users, all of them sharing the same permissions.
- The system administrator account, sometimes called the superuser, is the
- root. This is the most important account on the system. It must be owned by
- as a few users as possible because of the vast powers it provides.
The /etc/passwd file
- This is one of the most important and highly protected system file. It contains various information about the user accounts on the system.
- Each user account information is contained on a single line. A colon (:) is used to separate different fields from each other. Let’s have a quick look at each one in turn:
- Username: the string that the user uses for identification. It is a friendly name that is chosen by the system administrator (root) to identify the user. By convention, it is all lowercase characters, it may contain numbers (but cannot start with one), special characters dash (-), udnerscore (_), and – in some distros – the dollar sign ($) at the end.
- Password: a secret group of characters that should be known only to it’s owner. The /etc/passwd file places an x in this field, indicating that the encrypted password is stored in /etc/shadow file (more on that later).
UID and GID
- UID: it is short for user id. This is a unique number that identifies the user account on the system. As a matter of fact, Linux security system does not care about the username of the user account; it works by examining the its UID to provide the appropriate permissions and access rights. Since there are user accounts that are reserved for system accounts, those are assigned UID numbers from 0 (which is the root account) up till 500 (they reach 1000 in some systems). The higher numbers are assigned to normal (non-system) user accounts.
- GID: short for group id, it is the unique number that identifies a group account. A group contain one or more users that share similar access rights. The main purpose of the existence of groups is to provide certain users with access to specific files and directories while preventing others. Think of a directory on which a team of users are working. Putting those users in a group ensures that all of them will have the same permissions.
The comment and the home directory
- The comment field normally includes the user’s real name. For example, when a username is jdoe, the real name in the comment could be John Doe. It may also contain other personal information like the phone number, address and others.
- The home directory field contains the path to the user’s home directory. Only the user is the owner of his/her home directory. At the command line, a home directory can be referred to as tilde ~. For example, cd ~ will make you navigate to your home directory.
The default shell
- We have mentioned before that bash is not the only shell available for Linux. There are other shells that are available for Linux like ksh, zsh, tsh and so on. The shell field contains the path to the binary file of the specific shell. For example, /bin/bash.
- The default shell is a matter of choice. A user can change hi/her default shell.
- Since all users (including system accounts) must have a default shell. But system accounts – by nature – do not (and should not) have login access to the system. Accordingly, the default shell of such accounts is set to /sbin/nologin. Setting the default shell to /bin/nologin prints a friendly message explaining that logins with this account are not available. Setting it to /bin/false denies login without displaying that message.
The /etc/shadow file
- You might think that a file named /etc/passwd should be the one containing the hashed passwords of the users on the system.
- Actually this was the case long ago. But for security reasons, and since /etc/passwd file must be readiable by all users on the system to be able to authenticate them, the hashed password was removed from that file and placed in a more secured file: /etc/shadow .This file has higher level of protection and access restrictions.
- It contains the following information:
- The salt: this is a random input that helps make the password more protected
- The hash: the result of an irreversible mathematical operation. It is performed on the password and the salt combined. To authenticate a user, a hash is computed for the entered password, with the salt input added to it. If both hashes are identical the user is authenticated.
- Password history: these are some variables that help increase user security. For example, the password must be changed after a specific number of days (configured by the system administrator).
- The username: this is the username of the user and not the UID. It is what links /etc/passwd with /etc/shadow
- The password: the salted hash of the user password. If this field contains as asterisk or an exclamation mark, this means that the account is locked.
- Last password change: this is the date of the last password change. The UNIX timestamp is used here. UNIX timestamp is a date/time measurement method. It is the amount of time that passed since POSIX time (1/1/1970 at midnight). This field contains the number of days that passed since POSIX time.
- The number of days till a password can be changed. This is another security measure that prevents users from changing their passwords (as per policy) and then quickly setting it back to the original one.
- The number of days before a user must change the current password. This is sometimes referred to as password age.
- The number of warning days before a password expires. During those days, a warning message will be displayed to the users whose account will expire soon.
- Days between expiration and deactivation: if configured, the account can be deactivated after it’s expired. The difference is that when the account expires, the password is not erased and the account can be activated again by the system administrator or by the user logging in and changing the password. But if the account is deactivated, the password is deleted and only the system administrator can reactivate the account.
- Expiration date: the date when the account expires, expressed as the number of days since POSIX time.
- Special flag: this field is currently not used. It is reserved for future use.
- Notice that some day fields may contain either -1 or 9999, which effectively means that the relevant feature is disabled
Azure DevOps has a great growth in coming times and promising future. The practise of DevOps is increasing day by day in IT domain. The demand for the Azure DevOps is well shown in the salary structure in India for them. This particular blog is all about the future of Azure DevOps in different areas of the IT industry and opportunities you have.
Azure DevOps is a modern DevOps tool which is used to developing, testing and deploying modern apps through optimized cycle to provide a quality delivery of applications to users. It provides so many of tool which can helpful in tracking software building progress and also helpful for taking decision to deliver great software to the end users. The main thing is Azure DevOps services are not dependent on cloud platform.
Benefits of Azure DevOps
Azure DevOps allows their users to develop, deploy, and monitor code without opening multiple interfaces and you can also manage all of this from one view and bring ease to the customers.
Some of the main benefits are:
- Timely Access to New Features
- No Upgrades to Worry About
Career opportunity as an Azure DevOps Engineer?
Azure DevOps Engineers are responsible for defining and implementing a robust, scalable, pragmatic and realistic cloud solution that works for our clients. Design and implement cloud solutions which are secure, scalable, resilient, monitored, auditable and cost optimized. So what are the options in front of you when you complete your Certification as an Azure DevOps Engineer?
Here are a few job roles that you can fill:
- Cloud Engineer
- Cloud Specialist
- High Availability
- Shell Scripting
- Big Data
- Windows Admiration
Salary of an Azure DevOps Engineer
So many big fortune companies along with many start-ups or small businesses are required with an Azure DevOps Engineer who is certified. Not to worry about the job you get or salary offer to you after the completion as a certified Azure DevOps Engineer, just focus on enhancing your real-time experience if you planned to be a part of any big renowned organizations and dream job with the salary you wished for.
Let us have a look at a range of salaries across the globe.
- The Azure DevOps Engineer Salary in the United Kingdom on average is £82,472 per year or £29.18 per hour.
- The Azure DevOps Engineer Salary in the US on average is $136,500 per year or $70 per hour.
- The Azure DevOps Engineer Salary in Australia starts from an average of $130,000 per year or $66.67 per hour.
- The Azure DevOps Engineer Salary in Canada on average is $120,938 per year or $62.02 per hour.
As an Azure DevOps engineer, the national average salary is $105,114.
The future of Azure DevOps is very promising, and many more companies are set to accept this methodology. Just not to worry about the job you get or salary offer to you after the completion as a certified Azure DevOps Engineer, just focus on enhancing your real-time experience, practical knowledge if you planned to be a part of any big renowned organizations.
I hope you find this particular Blog helpful, we have discussed ideas around DevOps future scope and how it is going to revolutionize the industry further.
If you are interested to become an Azure DevOps, I would like to suggest you DevOpsSchool.com, one of the best institute for Azure DevOps training and certification, both in online and offline classroom mode.
How does Node.js work?
Why is node js so popular?
Node. js will handle several concurrent requests. this is often the most reason it quickly became popular among developers and huge corporations. It will handle several simultaneous requests while not straining the server.
Role of a Node.js developer:
Node.js Developer duties:
- Work as part of a team developing applications and services using Agile development methods.
- Contribute to team and organizational improvements in process and infrastructure.
- Build customer-facing UI and back-end services for payment processing administration and management.
- Code, test, and operate a node. js-based services.
- Effectively use tools and ingenuity to identify and fix defects before they become a problem.
Responsibilities of Node.js Developers:
Single-Threaded but Highly Scalable − Node.js uses a single-threaded model with event looping. The event mechanism helps the server to reply in a non-blocking way and makes the server extremely scalable as against ancient servers that produce restricted threads to handle requests. Node.js uses a single-threaded program and therefore the same program will offer service to a far larger range of requests than ancient servers like Apache HTTP Server.
No Buffering − Node.js applications never buffer any data. These applications simply output the data in chunks.
License − Node.js is released under the MIT license.
The Benefits of Node.js:
- Better efficiency and overall developer productivity
- Code sharing and reuse
- Speed and performance
- Easy knowledge sharing within a team
- A huge number of free tools
What is the scope of node JS?
Node.js Developer Course:
Js Developer Course covers the basics of Node before diving deep into nice tools like specific, Mongoose, and MongoDB. the whole course is predicated around one goal: Turning you into an expert Node developer capable of developing, testing, and deploying real-world production applications.
Node.js Developer requirements and qualifications:
- Previous working experience as a Node.js Developer for (x) years.
- BA in computer science or similar relevant field.
- In-depth knowledge of Node.js.
- Hands-on experience with HTML, CSS, and AJAX.
- Applicable knowledge of web libraries and frameworks such as AngularJS, Polymer, and Closure.
- Familiarity with the whole web stack, including protocols and web server optimization techniques.
- Strong analytical skills and problem-solving aptitude.
- Attention to detail.
Node.js is, while not a doubt, one of all the additional interesting technologies in use nowadays, and it’s full-grown into one of all the foremost popular platforms used for internet applications, services, and desktop apps. It’s my hope that when looking at this course, you currently have a solid foundation to begin writing your own Node applications.
If you wanna learn, and from all of us here at DevOpsSchool, thank you for watching!