$_GET and $_POST Variable in PHP

  • $_GET and $_POST is generally used in the forms to transfer data from one file to another file. Both the variables are kind of same except when we need to keep our data secure we use $_POST and generally in the form we use $_POST.

We will see the explanation by a example:



In this form we have used “get” method and we will see the output below:

As we can see we have used the method “get” in the form and in the output page of testform.php we can see the input given, also with that in the URL box we can see the details which we have provided in the form.html.

If we use “post” method in the form.html we will see the difference below:

As we can see in the URL box there is no such details provided which we can see while using “post” method.

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Super Global Variables in PHP

  • What is Super Global Variable?

Super global variable is a variable which can be used in two different files for manipulation.

For example we have a variable “a” in File1.php and we need to print, edit or any manipulation needed to be done in the variable in File2.php then we have to use Super Global Variable as a variable in File1.php.

  • Types of Super Global Variable in PHP:-

– $_GET

– $_POST





  • To see the use of variable $_GET and $_POST follow the link given below:


  • Use of variable $_REQUEST

 $_REQUEST can catch the data which is sent using both POST GET methods whereas $_GET and $_POST can catch the data which is sent by get and post.

  • Use of variable $_SERVER

When we use $_SERVER we can extract extra data from the client when the form is filled. Extra data in a sense we can extract:

– HTTP Connection

– Server Information

– Host Information

– URL Information

We can see it with the example given below:

Now when we insert the data in the form.html we will see the following information:

  • Use of $_COOKIE variable:

Cookies are small file that the server embeds on the user’s computer each time the same computer requests a page with a browser it will send the cookie too. With PHP, we can both create and retrieve cookie values.

To create a cookie we need to run the following command:



setcookie(name, value, expire, path, domain, secure, httponly);

In the syntax only the name parameter is mandatory rest other parameters are optional.

Example for creating a cookie:

  • Use of $_SESSION variable

For session variable refer the link given below:

How Session works in PHP

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How Session works in PHP

Session is a way to store information (in variables) to be used across multiple pages. We can see the architecture of session workflow below:

  • Initially we need to write the command session_start() to start a session.
  • Once we write the command server will check if there is a session available.
  • If there is no server then it will store a cookie in the client machine with the cookie name – PHPSESSID amd it will create a session id of 26 or 32 characters.
  • With that it will also store a file on server (Default Location – C:\xampp\tmp) with session id in the suffix.
  • If there is already a session in the client machine then it will show the variables stored in the session under (C:\xampp\tmp) the server.
  • Once we close the browser all the session ends.


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Data types in PHP (Array)

In this tutorial we will learn about Array data type in PHP, before that you can see all the data types in PHP given below:

  • String
  • Integer
  • Float
  • Boolean
  • Array
  • Object
  • Null

In PHP we have a special data type where we can assign number of values in single variable using array.

For example: $a = array(10,20,30);

In PHP, there are three types of arrays:

  • Indexed array
  • Associative array
  • Multidimensional array

Indexed array:- PHP indexed array is an array which is represented by an index number by default. All elements of array are represented by an index number which starts from 0. PHP indexed array can store numbers, strings or any object. PHP indexed array is also known as numeric array.



We can also use <pre> tag to print both the key and value in the output.


Another way to write the array in PHP which shows the same output as above:

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Difference between Single quotes ‘ and Double quotes ” in PHP

In this tutorial we will learn about the difference in single quotes and double quotes. Theoretically if we understand then single quotes doesn’t parse the data and double quotes is said to be interpreted.

In simple words if we understand then if we write anything in double quotes then it passes the value in the variable whereas if we write anything inside single quotes then it passes the value as string. We will see it though example to make it clear.


It shows that if we write within the single quotes it doesn’t parse the data and shows the value as string.

  • One more thing we should know that we cannot use Single quotes within single quotes and Double quotes within double quotes.

This is a wrong way of using quotes and we will fetch an error if it is compiled instead of this we can use the below format:

  • To use double quotes within double quotes and single quotes within single quotes then we have to use skip “\”.


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What is var_dump in PHP

Var_dump function is used to check the data type of a variable. In PHP we do not have to write the data type while declaring the variable so if we want to print the data type we will use “var_dump” function to see type of data of the variable.

For example:


Here, we can see in the output that it has printed the data type of all the variables which we have used.


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PHP Global and Local Variable

In this tutorial we will learn about declaring global and local variable in PHP.

Initially we will see what is local variable and global variable with examples.

Here if we see the variable is declared inside the function “local” so it will work inside the local function only until we return the value inside the function.

In this we can see that the variable “a” is declared outside the function local, so it won’t work inside the function until we call it.

If we see the output for this we will see an error since “a” is a local variable and it will not work beyond the function “test”.

Now in this code if we see, variable “a” is declared globally and we will get an error if we call it inside any function.

To execute the global variable in the function we need to use predefined variable “global” inside the function.

We will see now that it will return value inside the function as well as outside the function.


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Introduction to Object Oriented Programming in PHP

OOPs stands for Object Oriented Programming which is all about creating class and objects. Class serves as a template and multiple objects can be created using the class.

Oops concept reduces code repetition. Classes are templates for creating objects.

For an example, if we see a game take it as a Racing game where we will be having multiple cars which will be running there. So in this case either we have to write codes for each car individually or else we can create a class for car and then we can use it multiple times for the other class with that class name.

A class is a self-contained, independent collection of variables and functions which work together to perform one or more specific tasks, while objects are individual instances of a class.

We can see an example given below:


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SASS tutorial for Beginners

SASS is preprocessor of CSS, we can also refer it as CSS with superpower. SASS stands for Syntactically Awesome Style Sheets.

To save the file in SASS format we need to add .scss extension in the file.

Here we will learn how to use SASS in Visual Studio Code.

Initially in VSC we need to make a basic html file naming index.html and a folder for SASS naming sass.

Inside the sass folder we need to create a file naming main.scss.

Before executing the file we need to install an extension in our Visual Studio Code named as “Live Sass Compiler” which is shown below:

Once we install the extension we can see an option Live Sass in the status bar of Visual Studio Code, we need to click on that to make the Sass live.

If the status changes to “watching” automatically we can see that in the Scss folder main.css and main.css.map files are created.

Now whatever code we execute in main.scss it will be imported automatically to the main.css file.

Also we have to pay attention in linking the css script with the html file, as we will not link main.scss file in the html rather we will link main.css file in the html file.

Now we can start styling our file in main.scss and automatically all the codes will be imported in main.css and if it requires any conversion for being compatible with browser it will convert the codes automatically and make it compatible.

  • Key features of Sass which make it better than CSS is we can use :-

– Operators

– Variables





It make it convenient for us to execute complicated codes very easily with these features.

Now we will see the features in details:-

  • Operators – We can use operators in Scss as shown below:

And if we see the same code in main.css we will see the actual values without the operators:

  • Variables – We can use variables in scss as shown below:

Here we can see that we have declared a variable named as $bg-color and we have assigned a color to it and we can assign the same variable where we want to use that color.

  • Nesting – We can use nesting in scss as shown below:

Here we can see that inside the class main_header itself we have assigned the values for <h1> and <h2>.

  • Mixin – We can use mixin in scss as shown below:

With the help of mixin feature we can use a set of codes which is suppose to be used number of times in the project, we can assign that set of codes under @mixin file name{} and we can just use the name with @include in the front wherever we want to add those codes.

  • Parameter – We can use parameter in scss as shown below:

In this feature we can use parameters under the mixin feature. In the Line 16 we can see that we have created a mixin named as “name2” in which we have assigned a parameter “$rem” which is assigned in “letter-spacing” and we have called that parameter in the line 31 and 38 by giving it a value of “1rem”.

Similarly we can pass number of parameters to make some changes in the codes which are under the “mixin”.

  • Partials – In partials we can make our scss file less complex by making separate files for variables and mixin and then importing those files in the main scss. By this way we can easily make any changes in the mixin and variable without any complexity.

We need to keep one thing in mind that we have to use “_” while creating the partial files for ‘mixin’ and ‘variables’ so that it does not make any issue with the main scss file.

We can see the example below:






This is the codes for all the files and we can see the following output:

To know more about SASS you can refer the video given below:

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