Top 50 Ruby Interview Questions with Answers

Ruby Interview Questions with Answers

1. What is Ruby?

a) A programming language
b) A web browser
c) A database management system
d) An operating system

Answer: a) A programming language

2. Which of the following is not a valid variable name in Ruby?

a) my_variable
b) my-variable
c) MyVariable
d) myVariable

Answer: b) my-variable

3. What is the difference between an instance variable and a class variable in Ruby?

a) An instance variable is shared by all instances of a class, while a class variable is unique to each instance.
b) An instance variable is unique to each instance of a class, while a class variable is shared by all instances of a class.
c) An instance variable is not used in Ruby programming, while a class variable is used to store class-level data.
d) There is no difference between an instance variable and a class variable in Ruby.

Answer: b) An instance variable is unique to each instance of a class, while a class variable is shared by all instances of a class.

4. What does the attr_accessor method do in Ruby?

a) Defines a new attribute for a class
b) Allows read and write access to an instance variable
c) Allows read-only access to an instance variable
d) Allows write-only access to an instance variable

Answer: b) Allows read and write access to an instance variable

5. In Ruby, what is the difference between ‘and’ and ‘&&’?

a) There is no difference
b) ‘and’ has higher precedence than ‘&&’
c) ‘&&’ has higher precedence than ‘and’
d) ‘and’ is used for logical OR operations, while ‘&&’ is used for logical AND operations

Answer: c) ‘&&’ has higher precedence than ‘and’

6. Which of the following is not a valid loop construct in Ruby?

a) for
b) while
c) until
d) if

Answer: d) if

7. What is the difference between puts and print in Ruby?

a) There is no difference
b) puts adds a line break after the output, while print does not
c) print adds a line break after the output, while puts does not
d) puts and print are not valid Ruby commands

Answer: b) puts adds a line break after the output, while print does not

8. Which of the following is not a valid method for an array in Ruby?

a) push
b) pop
c) remove
d) shift

Answer: c) remove

9. What is the result of 5.times { |i| puts i } in Ruby?

a) 0 1 2 3 4
b) 1 2 3 4 5
c) 0 2 4 6 8
d) Nothing is outputted

Answer: a) 0 1 2 3 4

11. What is the purpose of a block in Ruby?

a) To define a new class
b) To define a new method
c) To group statements and pass them to a method
d) To create a new object

Answer: c) To group statements and pass them to a method

12. What is the result of “hello”.reverse in Ruby?

a) “hello”
b) “loleh”
c) “olleh”
d) “e”

Answer: c) “olleh”

12. What does the following code do in Ruby?
array = [1,2,3]! { |x| x * 2 }

a) It creates a new array with each element multiplied by 2
b) It creates a new array with each element added by 2
c) It modifies the current array by multiplying each element by 2
d) It modifies the current array by adding 2 to each element

Answer: c) It modifies the current array by multiplying each element by 2

13. What does the ||= operator do in Ruby?

a) It assigns a value only if the current value is nil or false
b) It assigns a value regardless of the current value
c) It checks if two variables are equal
d) It performs a bit-wise OR operation

Answer: a) It assigns a value only if the current value is nil or false

14. What is the result of (1..5).to_a in Ruby?

a) [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
b) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
c) [1, 3, 5]
d) [0, 1, 2, 3, 4]

Answer: b) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

15. Which of the following is not a valid way to create a hash in Ruby?

a) { key1: value1, key2: value2 }
b) { “key1” => “value1”, “key2” => “value2” }
c) value)
d) { :key1 => “value1”, :key2 => “value2” }

Answer: c) value)

16. What is a module in Ruby?

a) A way to define a new class
b) A way to group related methods and constants
c) A way to define a new variable
d) A way to define a new block

Answer: b) A way to group related methods and constants

17. What is the result of [1,2,3].inject(:+) in Ruby?

a) 6
b) [1,2,3]
c) [1, 3, 6]
d) Nothing is outputted

Answer: a) 6

18. What is the purpose of the ‘self’ keyword in Ruby?

a) To define a new class
b) To define a new module
c) To refer to the current object
d) To refer to the parent object

Answer: c) To refer to the current object

19. What is the difference between ‘raise’ and ‘rescue’ in Ruby?

a) There is no difference
b) ‘raise’ is used to raise an exception, while ‘rescue’ is used to handle an exception
c) ‘rescue’ is used to raise an exception, while ‘raise’ is used to handle an exception
d) ‘raise’ and ‘rescue’ are not valid Ruby commands

Answer: b) ‘raise’ is used to raise an exception, while ‘rescue’ is used to handle an exception

20. What is a gem in Ruby?

a) A way to define a new class
b) A way to group related methods and constants
c) A way to define a new method
d) A way to package and distribute Ruby code

Answer: d) A way to package and distribute Ruby code

21. What is the result of 10.divmod(3) in Ruby?

a) 3
b) 1
c) [3, 1]
d) [1, 3]

Answer: c) [3, 1]

22. What is the difference between a lambda and a proc in Ruby?

a) There is no difference
b) A lambda checks the number of arguments passed, while a proc does not
c) A proc checks the number of arguments passed, while a lambda does not
d) A lambda can be called with or without arguments, while a proc must be called with arguments

Answer: b) A lambda checks the number of arguments passed, while a proc does not

23. What is the result of “hello”.gsub(‘l’, ‘b’) in Ruby?

a) “hello”
b) “hb”
c) “hebbo”
d) “helbo”

Answer: d) “helbo”

24. Which of the following is not a valid way to define a class in Ruby?

a) class MyClass; end
b) MyClass = class; end
c) class MyClass < ParentClass; end
d) class MyClass; def my_method; end; end

Answer: b) MyClass = class; end

25. What is the result of “hello world”.split in Ruby?

a) [“hello”, “world”]
b) “hello world”
c) “helloworld”
d) [“h”, “e”, “l”, “l”, “o”, ” “, “w”, “o”, “r”, “l”, “d”]

Answer: a) [“hello”, “world”]

26. What is the purpose of the return keyword in Ruby?

a) To define a new variable
b) To define a new method
c) To stop the execution of a method and return a value
d) To refer to the current object

Answer: c) To stop the execution of a method and return a value

27. What is the result of {‘a’ => 1, ‘b’ => 2}.invert in Ruby?

a) {‘1’ => ‘a’, ‘2’ => ‘b’}
b) {‘a’ => ‘1’, ‘b’ => ‘2’}
c) {1 => ‘a’, 2 => ‘b’}
d) {‘a’ => 2, ‘b’ => 1}

Answer: {1 => ‘a’, 2 => ‘b’}

28. What is the difference between ‘puts’ and ‘p’ in Ruby?

a) There is no difference
b) ‘p’ adds a line break after the output, while ‘puts’ does not
c) ‘puts’ adds a line break after the output, while ‘p’ does not
d) ‘puts’ prints the object and its type, while ‘p’ only prints the object

Answer: d) ‘puts’ prints the object and its type, while ‘p’ only prints the object

29. What is the result of [1,2,3].each { |x| puts x * 2 } in Ruby?

a) [2, 4, 6]
b) Nothing is outputted
c) 2 4 6
d) 1 2 3

Answer: b) Nothing is outputted

30. What is the result of ‘hello’.length in Ruby?

a) 4
b) 5
c) 6
d) 7

Answer: b) 5

31. Which of the following is not a valid way to create a range in Ruby?

a) 1..5
b) 1…5
c) (1, 5)
d), 5)

Answer: c) (1, 5)

32. What is the purpose of the ‘unless’ keyword in Ruby?

a) To define a new variable
b) To define a new loop
c) To define a new method
d) To execute code only if a condition is false

Answer: d) To execute code only if a condition is false

33. What is the result of “hello”.upcase in Ruby?

a) “hello”
b) “HELLO”
c) “Hello”
d) “hello world”

Answer: b) “HELLO”

34. What is the difference between ‘include’ and ‘extend’ in Ruby?

a) There is no difference
b) ‘include’ adds methods as instance methods, while ‘extend’ adds methods as class methods
c) ‘extend’ adds methods as instance methods, while ‘include’ adds methods as class methods
d) ‘include’ and ‘extend’ are not valid Ruby commands

Answer: b) ‘include’ adds methods as instance methods, while ‘extend’ adds methods as class methods

35. What is the result of [1,2,3].reduce(:+) in Ruby?

a) 6
b) [1,2,3]
c) [1, 3, 6]
d) Nothing is outputted

Answer: a) 6

36. Which of the following is not a valid way to access a hash value in Ruby?

a) hash[key]
b) hash.fetch(key)
c) hash.get(key)
d) hash.values_at(key)

Answer: c) hash.get(key)

37. What is the result of “hello”.index(‘l’) in Ruby?

a) 0
b) 1
c) 2
d) 3

Answer: b) 1

38. What does the following code do in Ruby?

class MyClass
def initializer
puts “Hello, world!”

a) Defines a new method
b) Defines a new class
c) Prints “Hello, world!” to the console
d) There is a typo in the code and it will not run

Answer: b) Defines a new class

39. What is the purpose of the ‘nil’ keyword in Ruby?

a) To define a new variable
b) To indicate that a value is unknown or undefined
c) To stop the execution of a method and return a value
d) To refer to the current object

Answer: b) To indicate that a value is unknown or undefined

40. What is the result of ‘hello’.include?(‘lo’) in Ruby?

a) true
b) false
c) nil
d) There is a syntax error in the code

Answer: a) true

41. What is the difference between ‘next’ and ‘break’ in Ruby?

a) There is no difference
b) ‘next’ skips the current iteration of a loop, while ‘break’ stops the loop entirely
c) ‘break’ skips the current iteration of a loop, while ‘next’ stops the loop entirely
d) ‘next’ and ‘break’ are not valid Ruby commands

Answer: b) ‘next’ skips the current iteration of a loop, while ‘break’ stops the loop entirely

42. What is the result of “hello world”.capitalize in Ruby?

a) “hello world”
b) “Hello world”
c) “Hello World”

Answer: b) “Hello world”

43. What is the purpose of the ‘super’ keyword in Ruby?

a) To refer to the current object
b) To call the parent method with the same name
c) To define a new class
d) To define a new module

Answer: b) To call the parent method with the same name

44. What is the result of “hello”.concat(” world”) in Ruby?

a) “hello world”
b) “helloworld”
c) “worldhello”
d) “hell worldo”

Answer: a) “hello world”

45. What is the difference between == and === in Ruby?

a) There is no difference
b) == is used for exact matches, while === is used for range comparisons
c) === is used for exact matches, while == is used for pattern matching
d) === is not a valid Ruby operator

Answer: c) === is used for exact matches, while == is used for pattern matching

46. What is the result of [1,2,3].select { |x| x % 2 == 0 } in Ruby?

a) [1]
b) [2]
c) [3]
d) [2,3]

Answer: b) [2]

47. What is the result of “hello”.delete(‘lo’) in Ruby?

a) “hello”
b) “heo”
c) “ho”
d) “el”

Answer: d) “el”

48. What is the result of (1..5).reduce(:*) in Ruby?

a) 120
b) [1,2,3,4,5]
c) [1,5,10,15,20,25]
d) Nothing is outputted

Answer: a) 120

49. What is the purpose of the ‘eval’ method in Ruby?

a) To define a new variable
b) To define a new method
c) To execute a string as Ruby code
d) To execute a file as Ruby code

Answer: c) To execute a string as Ruby code

50. What is the difference between ‘private’ and ‘protected’ in Ruby?

a) There is no difference
b) ‘private’ restricts access to a method to the current object, while ‘protected’ restricts access to a method to the current object and its subclasses
c) ‘protected’ restricts access to a method to the current object, while ‘private’ restricts access to a method to the current object and its subclasses
d) ‘private’ and ‘protected’ are not valid Ruby commands

Answer: b) ‘private’ restricts access to a method to the current object, while ‘protected’ restricts access to a method to the current object and its subclasses

How can we understand Django?

Hello, my loving friends, today in this article. We are going to deliver a brief description of Django. In this course details, we are covering the prominent part of Django for beginners. If you are a python learner or a seeker then this is the exact place for any individual those have been looking for. In this topic, we have covered all the beneficiary subjects regarding this course. I will really say that this will give you the best experiences of your doing and what you are going to do.

What is Django?


Django is a free and open-source web framework. Now you will say it is ok we don’t know about the free part and its open-source part but what is a framework? Now. The framework is a combination of certain components and packages. Definitely, if you want to build some complex application. There are certain things that you need to make. For example, if you want to make a web application. You don’t want anything from scratch. It will be time-consuming. So, you will be using a framework here. Now, Django is not the only framework that’s only available.            

Why use the Django framework?

Django framework

One of them is and one of the famous ones is Django. Why do we have to learn Django there? Django as we know is a web application framework that means you can build web applications. But hold on, our websites are so important definitely. If you talk about any business, they need their own online presence. In fact, most of the virtual solutions which you use nowadays are web applications. For example, if you want to buy something online, we have amazon, flip kart, and eBay. If you want to book a cab, you have an uber. We have so many applications available which are based on the web. If you want to build them, you will be using Django there. But you talk about the websites, we know that you can build websites with the help of HTML, CSS, & JavaScript. So, basically, we use HTML to design the page. You can think of HTML as makeup for you. Now that you have CSS, if you want to improve your design, if you want to have that uniformity in the design that’s you will use CSS. We have Html, CSS for design. To make your websites interactive, you can use JavaScript.

Static and dynamic website

Yes, you use HTML, CSS, and JavaScript in the front hand. What about the backhand part? What if you want to make a website like a dynamic website? For example, if you go to Facebook, everyone will get influent by the feeds, you will not see the same messages which everyone is seeing. Your Facebook is different from that. If you go to amazon, you can buy stuff online, you can pay, and you can transfer the amount online. All these things need certain operations and certain processing is done on the backhand side. That’s where we need a line base that will work on the backhand but which one? But we have certain options there, we have java using, if you have heard about servlet, you can do that, PHP, Asp, and Python. But hold on, how can you do that python?          

How Django can be used?

That’s where we have Django. So, you can use Django to build a web application in the backhand part in python. As I mentioned before, Django is not the only web framework is available but it’s quite famous there. Now, it comes to web applications one thing that is very famous in MVC. It doesn’t matter which language you learn maybe java, PHP, or asp. We have this thing common in MVC (Model view controller). Now. Basically, we do that you can separate the concerns. We have a model for data, view the Html format that you have seen on the screen and then we have a controller which will control these operations.          

What is MVT in Django?

But in general, when you say MVC, it will help you to build a good web application but in Django, we have something similar to MVC not exactly MVC normally call as MVT. So, MVT is a model view template so basically in MVT we are replacing the controller with a view and replacing the view with the template. But Django basically follows MVT so, if you have worked on MVC in a different language. Don’t worry, it’s almost the same but needs some changes. But why did you choose Django? When you have some other framework is available in python. The first Reason is Django is fast, which simply means if you want to build something, you shouldn’t be spending much time in the configuration so, Django will help you to build applications faster. The second one is the number of components available.

The thing apart from if you record a video, you need some components with you. You need a camera, lights, and mike, in the same way, if you want to build a web application. You need log in, database connectivity, all these things come bundled in Django. Does advantages and drawbacks as well, advantages you have everything with you and drawback, you have everything on you. The third one is security if you are building an application where you use it. Definitely, there will be sending the data and you want to secure them & the users. So, Django will provide you with that security. The fourth one is scalability, what if in future sites scales, you want to have multiple users, & more features and it will give you the options as well. That’s the reason, you should be learning Django. It is interesting so if you have done your python course. This is the very true place and accurate learning path for you.

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How to become a TypeScript Developer?

Developing a large application requires the developer to have the functional knowledge of a wide range of languages including TypeScript. The Skills of TypeScript are necessary to become a Full-stack developer. This will allow you to advance your career and develop interesting web applications. TypeScript is among the top programming language demanded by major companies.

TypeScript Developer:

TypeScript developers are generally responsible for providing the best user experience with a company’s applications and platforms. In order to attract the TypeScript developer who best matches your needs, it is very important to write a clear and accurate TypeScript developer job description.

TypeScript Developer Roles and Responsibilities:

  • Plan, develop and implement user interface strategy
  • Work with designers and developers to develop modern, intuitive user interfaces for our web properties
  • Work on design, look and feel of our web properties
  • Continuously improve the user experience
  • Research user preferences
  • Research new technologies and best practices
  • Work in a team environment with shared code; disciplined use of source code control and process documentation
  • Improve JS and CSS quality by conducting code analysis, and recommending changes in policies and procedures

TypeScript Developer requirements and qualifications:

  • Experience with AngularJS, ReactJS, KnockoutJS, Backbone.
  • Good time-management skills.
  • Great interpersonal and communication skills.
  • Experience with SASS/LESS, HTML, CSS, DOM, AJAX.

Scope of TypeScript Developers:

The Future of TypeScript is Bright. Today. NET Framework has become an enterprise name to build Windows, Web, and mobile applications and C# is the prime language to build.

Salary of TypeScript Developer:

The average salary of TypeScript Programming Language skills in India is ₹4L to ₹10L.

If you are planning to learn the TypeScript programming language, then I would be recommended you go with DevOpsSchool institute for better knowledge.

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What is Python Programming and why it is important?

Hey folks, here we are with the topic of Python programming and its importance. Here we will discuss about python and its importance. Python is associate understood, object-oriented, high-level artificial language with dynamic linguistics. It has constitutional information structures, combined with dynamic typewriting and dynamic binding, creating it terribly engaging for fast application development, scripting, or as a glue language to attach existing elements along.

What is Python?

Python is integrated understood, object-oriented, high-level artificial language with dynamic linguistics. Its high-level inbuilt information structures, combined with dynamic writing and dynamic binding, create it terribly engaging for speedy Application Development, likewise as to be used as a scripting or glue language to attach existing elements along. Python’s easy, simple to be told syntax emphasizes readability and so reduces the value of program maintenance. Python supports modules and packages, which inspires program modularity and code apply. The Python interpreter and also the in depth normal library square measure out there in supply or binary type for gratis for all major platforms, and may be freely distributed.

Often, programmers fall loving with Python attributable to the redoubled productivity it provides. Since there’s no compilation step, the edit-test-debug cycle is implausibly quick. Debugging Python programs is easy a bug or unhealthy input can ne’er cause a segmentation fault. Instead, once the interpreter discovers miscalculation, it raises Associate in attention exception. Once the program does not catch the exception, the interpreter prints a stack trace. A supply level computer programme permits examination of native and world variables, analysis of impulsive expressions, setting breakpoints, stepping through the code a line at a time, and so on. The computer programme is written in Python itself, testifying to Python’s self-examining power. On the opposite hand, typically the fastest thanks to correct a program is to feature a couple of print statements to the source the quick edit-test-debug cycle makes this straightforward approach terribly effective.

How python works?

The Python, serves alternative programing language, which is fully arithmetic. This means that what you’ll do in Python, you can do the other programing language, and contrariwise. They’re all equally communicatory.

That said, Python will appear to be the language of selection in an exceedingly sort of domains (for example, machine learning) due to glorious library support, ability to quickly example, so forth. Personally, I notice Python partaking as a result of its therefore capable, however really easy to know.

It will have its “drawbacks” (depends on your perspective): dynamically written, taken, and so forth.

The Python converts everything in its interpreter to computer memory unit as C computer memory unit compiled code to mimic a compiled .dll file and writes it once the interpreter debugs it directly into a DLL file. And Pythons main.c file sets 2 loops into python main () to incorporate it and execute it in an exceedingly nested second loop. One loop is that the main loop and also the second is named in from the python. Which has the PyObject.dll with the pyobject second loop methodology.

What are the uses of Python?

Clearly, Python may be an in style and in-demand talent to be told. However what’s python programming used for? We’ve already shortly touched on a number of the areas it are often applied to, and we’ve dilated on these and a lot of Python examples below. Python are often used for:

  • AI and machine learning

Because Python is such a stable, flexible, and straightforward programing language, it’s good for numerous machine learning (ML) and AI (AI) comes. In fact, Python is among the favourite languages among knowledge scientists, and there square measure several Python machine learning and AI libraries and packages out there.

  • Data analytics

Much like AI and machine learning, knowledge analytics is another chop-chop developing field that utilises Python programming. At a time once we’re making a lot of knowledge than ever before, there’s a requirement for people who will collect, manipulate and organise the knowledge.

  • Data mental image

Data mental image is another in style and developing space of interest. Again, it plays into several of the strengths of Python. Also as its flexibility and also the truth its ASCII text file, Python provides a spread of graphing libraries with all types of options.

  • Programming applications

You can program all types of applications exploitation Python. The general language are often accustomed scan and build file directories, produce GUIs and Apis, and more. Whether or not its block chain applications, audio and video apps, or machine learning applications, you’ll be able to build all with Python.

  • Web development

Python may be a nice selection for net development. This can be mostly because of the actual fact that there square measure several Python net development frameworks to decide on from, like Django, Pyramid, and Flask. These frameworks are accustomed produce sites and services like Spotify, Reddit and Mozilla.

What are the importance of python?

The Python is a general purpose and high level artificial language. You’ll use Python for developing desktop GUI applications, net sites and web applications. Also, Python, as a high level artificial language, permits you to target core practicality of the applying by taking care of common programming tasks. The straightforward syntax rules of the artificial language any makes it easier for you to stay the code base decipherable and application rectifiable. There also are variety of reasons why you must like Python to alternative programming languages.

  • Readable and reparable Code.
  • Multiple Programming Paradigms.
  • Compatible with Major Platforms and Systems.
  • Many Open supply Frameworks and Tools.
  • Simplify complicated software package Development.
  • Adopt check Driven Development.
  • Python is employed in machine learning & computer science, fields at the stylish of technical school.
  • Python programming is flexible in terms of platform and purpose

What are the benefits of python?

Would you prefer to create a robust future and take your career to consecutive level? Learn to program Python, here we have a tendency to area unit talking regarding the programing language. Allow us to scan the advantages of learning python and recognize the importance of python. You’ll perceive this programing language quickly, and you’ll bring home the bacon an incredible career within the information science development business once you utilize these skills. Moreover, with new apps for machine learning that emerge daily, the demand for Python programmers can grow even higher. Here are some of the benefits of python programming:

  • Easy to browse, Learn and Write. Python may be a high-level artificial language that has English-like syntax.
  • Improved Productivity.
  • Interpreted Language.
  • Dynamically written.
  • Free and ASCII text file.
  • Vast Libraries Support.
  • Portability.
  • Slow Speed.


So, this is the end of this article, hope you liked this article and you would be clear with your doubts. Python is associate understood, object-oriented, high-level artificial language with dynamic linguistics. It has constitutional information structures, combined with dynamic typewriting and dynamic binding, creating it terribly engaging for fast application development, scripting, or as a glue language to attach existing elements along.

Now if you want to enroll into python programming course then I would suggest you to visit DevOpsSchool. This is one of the best website for online learning and certification program.

Thank You!

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Everything you need to know about Full Stack Developer


The trade definition of a Full Stack Developer is an engineer who will work on totally different levels of an application stack. The term stack refers to the mixture of elements and tools that frame the appliance. the most objective of the full-stack engineer is to stay each part of the system running smoothly.

What is Full Stack Developer?

Full-stack web developers have the ability to design complete web applications and websites. They work on the frontend, backend, database, and debugging of web applications or websites.

Full Stack Developer is an engineer who works on each the client-side and server-side of the software system application. This kind of developer works on the complete Stack of a software system application meaning Front end development, Back end development, Database, Server, API, and version controlling systems. Hence, the name Full Stack Developer.

Why Do You Need a Full-Stack Developer?
Here are some reasons why you should need a full stack development professional:

  • A full-stack developer helps you to keep every part of the system running smoothly.
  • If one person plays different roles, it saves your company’s personnel, infrastructure, and operational cost.
  • Full-stack developers can provide help to everyone in the team and greatly reduce the time and technical costs of team communication.

A Full Stack Developer does:
As a full-stack developer, you may be involved in these activities:

Translate user requirements into the overall architecture and implementation of new systems. Manage Project and coordinate with the Client. Write backend code in Ruby, Python, Java, PHP languages, Writing optimized front-end code HTML and JavaScript, Understand, create and debug database-related queries. Create test code to validate the application against client requirements. Monitor the performance of web applications & infrastructure, Troubleshooting web applications with a fast and accurate resolution.

A Full Stack Developer must know at least a few of these languages for backend development:
PHP – One of the most popular choices for backend development, PHP is an open-source, cross-platform compatible language that can work seamlessly on Unix, macOS, and Windows.
Python – Python’s English-like syntax, smooth learning curve, and vast assortment of libraries and frameworks are what make it extremely popular among developers and coders around the world.
Ruby – Ruby is a robust programming language. An active community of developers backs it, but it also boasts of excellent documentation and dependencies, making it the ideal choice for backend development.
Java – Java is a multipurpose programming language. It can be used for web, desktop, and mobile application development. Plus, Java has a wide range of frameworks that further simplify the process of backend development.

Advantages of Full Stack Developer
The advantage of being a full stack web developer is:

  • You can master all the techniques involved in a development project.
  • You can make a prototype very rapidly.
  • You can provide help to all the team members.
  • You can reduce the cost of the project.
  • You can reduce the time used for team communication.
  • You can switch between front and back-end development based on requirements.
  • You can better understand all aspects of new and upcoming technologies.

What is the role of a full-stack developer?

Full-stack developers are computer programmers who are experts in front and back-end coding. Their primary role includes designing user interactions on websites, developing servers, and databases for website practicality, and coding for mobile platforms.

Full Stack Developer Skills You Need to Know:

Full Stack Developers need to work with HTML to define the structure of websites by using markup. they have to even be experts in CSS for effective presentation of the HTML components. Full Stack Developers should have intensive knowledge in each of those programming languages for making an interactive, intuitive, and interesting frontend for applications.

Full Stack Developers should have in-depth knowledge of JavaScript alongside its ideas and features like React and Angular. one in every of the most effective things concerning JavaScript is that it includes various useful features, as well as functions, prototypes, higher-order event delegation, and closure, that facilitate produce responsive websites.
It is also necessary for Full Stack Developers to upgrade their JavaScript knowledge as and once new frameworks, libraries, and tools are launched. excluding this, Full Stack Developers should know how to use DOM and JSON.

Git and GitHub
As for Full Stack Developers, git permits them to trace each minor modification done to the application codebase. They need to remember all the essential git commands and examples. Using git empowers Full Stack Developers to explore distinctive opportunities for security, productivity, and management knowledge of git permits Full Stack Developers to higher collaborate and collaborate with their fellow developers/programmers who are working on a similar project.

Backend languages
While we’ve covered the two most important frontend languages, HTML and CSS (along with JavaScript), the other crucial part of an application or software is that the backend. whereas backend development could be a whole totally different game, there are lots of programming languages to settle on from. Doing a full-stack internet development course can assist you to learn the specified languages necessary to become a full-stack developer.

Web architecture
Full Stack Developers need to recognize the core of the net design. Since their primary responsibility is to develop advanced software system applications from scratch, they need to know how to structure the code, categorize the files, structure the information in databases, and perform the required process tasks.

Both HTTP and REST serve two unique functions. HTTP is that the protocol used for facilitating communication with the consumer, whereas REST is an interface between systems using the HTTP protocol to assemble information or perform completely different operations (in varied formats) on the info. So, REST acts as sort of a translator between the frontend and also the backend.

Database storage
All web applications need a database where all the data will be stored. This is to ensure that developers can access the data later. Database storage calls for an experienced and skilled Full Stack Developer who knows relational databases and database storage inside-out. Full-stack developers must be adept in database management – they should be able to design, understand, and manipulate database queries. They must also know how to work with XML and JSON.

Basic design skills
As we’ve made it clear that a Full Stack Developer is concerned with frontend and backend, they must possess fundamental design skills. The knowledge of frontend design is crucial to make a website look attractive and appealing. A website with a neat and user-friendly design always wins the hearts of the users.
Thus, Full Stack Developers must know the basic design principles, including UI & UX design, prototypes, scalability, etc.

NPM is the package manager explicitly designed for Node.js. It aids in the installation of different packages. It also offers relevant solutions for various dependencies. NPM allows developers to place modules optimally to help the node to find them and manage the dependency conflicts accordingly. NPM is highly configurable, and thus, it can be used for many applications, including the development, publishing, discovery, and installation of node programs.

Soft skills
When you aspire to become a Full Stack Developer, technical skills solely won’t suffice. You must possess the perfect balance of technical knowledge and soft skills. Every Full Stack Developer must have the following soft skills:
1. An analytical bent of mind
2. Good time management skills
3. Curiosity for learning
4. Attention to detail
6. Creative vision
7. Patience

Full Stack Developer Responsibilities:

  • Developing front-end website architecture.
  • Designing user interactions on web pages.
  • Developing back-end website applications.
  • Creating servers and databases for functionality.
  • Ensuring cross-platform optimization for mobile phones.
  • Ensuring responsiveness of applications.
  • Working alongside graphic designers for web design features.
  • Seeing through a project from conception to finished product.
  • Designing and developing APIs.
  • Meeting both technical and consumer needs.
  • Staying abreast of developments in web applications and programming languages.

Trending Frameworks of Full Stack Developer:

Angular is a front-end framework based on Javascript. It is developed and maintained by Google. Its objective is to simplify the development and testing of Single-page applications.

  • It provides a framework for MVC and MVVM architectures. It was developed to solve issues faced in single-page applications.
  • Angular is the front-end part of the MEAN stack. This framework adapts and extends HTML and its attributes. It follows the declarative programming paradigm. AngularJS has separate DOm manipulation and app logic.
  • Similarly, it has separate client-side and server-side codings. This improves the efficiency and reduces time. The development of the front-end and back-end can be done in parallel. Both sides can also be reused.
  • It is slow to render in since it checks all the variables under the scope for every cycle. It is also not very lightweight in terms of size compared to other frameworks.

MeteorJS is a web framework written based on javascript. It is written using node.js. It is open-source and free. It can use its template engine Blaze or can be integrated with react and angular for client-end operations.

  • It automatically sends data to clients without expressly writing codes for it. This is possible using the publish-subscribe pattern. Initially released in 2011 as sky break, it was renamed Meteor.
  • Meteor has taken over multiple other technologies like FathomDB, Galaxy – a cloud-based hosting environment. They provide an integrated solution for these with Meteor. It can also be integrated with MongoDB, NPM, and other web development tools.
  • The integrated javascript stack ensures less coding and more features. It can be used for developing various platforms for the web, iOS, Android, and laptops. It is useful for building web chat platforms and interactive websites.

Django is an open-source web framework written in Python [Python programming is the most in-demand and a high-level coding language used in web development]. It has MTV architecture. It is developed and maintained by the Django software foundation. It simplifies the creation of complex websites which are data-driven.

  • It also consists of a lightweight web server, which can be used for development and testing.
  • It also has a template system, a caching framework, an internal dispatcher system, and an internalization and serialization system. It has a system to enhance the template engine as well. it also has an interface to the built-in unit test framework.
  • Django can be run with Apache, Nginx, Cherokee, etc. It also supports backends like Postgres, MySQL, SQLite, and Oracle.
  • Django is also bundled with other systems and frameworks that make it a complete package. These include an authentication system, a dynamic administrative system, tooling to generate Google sitemaps, and a framework to create GIS applications.

Also known as Ruby on Rails, Rails is a back-end web app framework. It is based on the language Ruby. It has an MVC architecture. It additionally facilitates the usage of HTML, JS, and CSS to create a user interface. It emphasizes Convention over Configuration (CoC) and Doesn’t Repeat Yourself (DRY) patterns. It was initially released in 2005.

  • Rails brought about a defining change in features and innovation. It allowed easy migration and the creation of database tables. This led to fast application development. Rails support ‘less code and less repetition’.
  • Rails are not connected to the internet directly. It uses a front-end webserver to connect to the internet. It can be run with Nginx, Apache, and Cherokee, etc.
  • It has an in-built package manager RubyGems. It is mostly paired with a MySQL or Postgres database. It is good for building scalable web applications and websites. It has influenced many frameworks, some of which are also on this list.

Node.js is a powerful back-end framework based on javascript. It is built on the javascript V8 engine. It is open source and a very popular framework for server-side coding. It can be run in NodeJS runtime on Windows, Mac OS, and Linux. It is the back-end of the MEAN stack.

  • Node uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model. This makes the framework lightweight and efficient. It is highly scalable. It has an in-built default package manager called NPM. This reduces the time is taken and lines of code that need to be written.
  • It provides services to a much larger number of requests than traditional servers like Apache. These applications do not buffer any data and output data in chunks.
  • The knowledge of javascript is a prerequisite to learn and use NodeJS. Other technologies like HTML, CSS, AJAX are value-addition.

Android SDK or the software development kit is a framework to develop an application for Android devices. It consists of libraries, application program interfaces, and sample codes along with a debugger.

  • SDK Android is compatible with other Operating Systems like Windows, Mac OS, and Linux. It is generally used to write programs by using an integrated development environment (IDE). Eclipse with an ADT plug-in is a popular choice.
  • It can also be coded in the command prompt. The IDEs graphical interface makes development easy and fast.
  • Java is the programming language used to write mobile applications. This requires Java Development Kit (JDK). The SDK also comes with an Android emulator. Android development is becoming easier gradually due to the continuous development of the SDK.

React is a front-end library used to create UI. It was developed by Facebook. It is based on Javascript and is used for handling the view layer for web applications. You need to be adept with Javascript, HTML, and CSS while working on React. React does not use HTML, but you still should learn it as it will help with JSX which is similar to it.

  • React is used to create reusable UI components, which are a great advantage. It reduces the time taken to code from scratch. It saves a lot of effort and resources.
  • The use of virtual DOM is the biggest advantage of React. Javascript virtual DOM is fast, and thus the performance is high. React can also be used on the server-side with node.
  • The components model of React ensures the readability of the code. This makes it easy for large apps to be built and modified.

Spring is an application framework. It is written in Java. It is an inversion of the control container for the Java platform. It provides a consistent method of managing Java objects.

  • The framework does not impose any particular programming model. It is an open-source framework and is free. It is known as the framework of frameworks.
  • It has multiple frameworks like an MVC framework, remote access framework, data access frameworks, transaction management framework, etc. MVC or a model-view-controller framework is one of the most popular frameworks used for creating scalable projects.
  • Spring also has its own convention over configuration design paradigm solution for spring framework for rapid application development.
  • It is developed and maintained by Pivotal Software. You can also use spring to build applications on top of the Java enterprise edition platform.

Symfony is a web development framework based on PHP. It is now developed and maintained by the Symfony community. It has a set of PHP libraries and reusable components.

  • It is free. It can operate cross-platform on Windows, Mac OS, and Linux. Symfony is used to build robust applications.
  • It gives full control of the configuration to developers. A lot of features can be customized. Symfony uses a bytecode cache, which improves its performance.
  • It replaces repetitive tasks. Symfony can be used to code efficiently and is fast to create and maintain a website. It has a set of in-built free components that can be used for other projects like templating engine, a parser, an event dispatcher, etc.
  • Additionally, it also uses PHP-based open-source projects like unit testing framework PHPUnit and templating engine twig and swift- the email library. It is heavily influenced by the spring framework.

Scope of Full Stack Developer:

These days, full-stack development is in huge demand. corporations wish full-stack developers as a result for a variety of reasons. Full-stack developers will work with a variety of technologies, and so, they’ll manage further aspects of a project than a median computer programmer.

They minimize prices for companies as a result of they’re going to do the work of the many specialists alone. A full-stack developer is familiar with several stacks, besides the MEAN stack and also the LAMP stack. Their huge knowledge of a variety of areas equips them to handle the distinctive requirements of their projects. Firms are prepared to pay good-looking salaries to full-stack developers as a result of their unique talent sets and abilities.


You will need to have seen however terrific the prospects are for full-stack developers. As companies are relying additional and additional on technology and therefore the internet, the demand for such specialists is rising. The entire stack developer’s future scope is doubtless sensible, and it’s an honest time for anybody to learn this ability.

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How to become a Node.js Developer?


Node.js could be a platform designed on Chrome’s JavaScript runtime for simply building quick and scalable network applications. Node.js uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model that creates it light-weight and efficient, excellent for data-intensive time period applications that run across distributed devices.
Node.js is an open-source, cross-platform runtime setting for developing server-side and networking applications. Node.js applications are written in JavaScript and maybe run among the Node.js runtime on OS X, Microsoft Windows, and Linux.

Node.js additionally provides an expensive library of assorted JavaScript modules that simplifies the event of internet applications victimization Node.js to a good extent.

What is Node.js?

Node. js could be a platform designed on Chrome’s JavaScript runtime for simply building quick and scalable network applications. Node. js uses an event-driven, non-blocking I/O model that creates it light-weight and efficient, excellent for data-intensive time period applications that run across distributed devices.

How does Node.js work?

First of all just like other languages node comes with packages and modules. These are libraries of functions that we can import from npm (node package manager) into our code and utilize. Node. js is that the JavaScript runtime surroundings that’s supported Google’s V8 Engine for example with the assistance of Node. js we are able to run the JavaScript outside of the browser js is that it’s single-threaded, supported event-driven design, and non-blocking supported the I/O model.

Why is node js so popular?

Node. js will handle several concurrent requests. this is often the most reason it quickly became popular among developers and huge corporations. It will handle several simultaneous requests while not straining the server.

Role of a Node.js developer:

A Node. js developer is answerable for writing server-side internet application logic in JavaScript and/or variants of it, like CoffeeScript, IcedCoffeeScript, etc, js developer is answerable for writing server-side internet application logic in JavaScript and/or variants of it, like CoffeeScript, IcedCoffeeScript, etc.

Node.js Developer duties:

  • Work as part of a team developing applications and services using Agile development methods.
  • Contribute to team and organizational improvements in process and infrastructure.
  • Build customer-facing UI and back-end services for payment processing administration and management.
  • Code, test, and operate a node. js-based services.
  • Effectively use tools and ingenuity to identify and fix defects before they become a problem.

Responsibilities of Node.js Developers:

Features of Node.js:
Following are some of the important features that make Node.js the first choice of software architects.

Asynchronous and Event-Driven − All Apis of the Node.js library are asynchronous, that is, non-blocking. It primarily means that a Node. the js-based server never waits for an API to come back with the information. The server moves to the next API when calling it and a notification mechanism of Events of Node.js helps the server to induce a response from the previous API decision.

Very Fast − Being built on Google Chrome’s V8 JavaScript Engine, the Node.js library is very fast in code execution.

Single-Threaded but Highly Scalable − Node.js uses a single-threaded model with event looping. The event mechanism helps the server to reply in a non-blocking way and makes the server extremely scalable as against ancient servers that produce restricted threads to handle requests. Node.js uses a single-threaded program and therefore the same program will offer service to a far larger range of requests than ancient servers like Apache HTTP Server.

No Buffering − Node.js applications never buffer any data. These applications simply output the data in chunks.

License − Node.js is released under the MIT license.

The Benefits of Node.js:

  • Better efficiency and overall developer productivity
  • Code sharing and reuse
  • Speed and performance
  • Easy knowledge sharing within a team
  • A huge number of free tools

What is the scope of node JS?

Node.js could be a runtime environment that permits you to write down server-side applications in JavaScript. PHP could be a server-side language. attributable to that, you’ll get to try PHP with a frontend language, sometimes a mix of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, to make full-stack internet apps.

Node.js Developer Course:

Js Developer Course covers the basics of Node before diving deep into nice tools like specific, Mongoose, and MongoDB. the whole course is predicated around one goal: Turning you into an expert Node developer capable of developing, testing, and deploying real-world production applications.

Node.js Developer requirements and qualifications:

  • Previous working experience as a Node.js Developer for (x) years.
  • BA in computer science or similar relevant field.
  • In-depth knowledge of Node.js.
  • Hands-on experience with HTML, CSS, and AJAX.
  • Development experience designing object-oriented JavaScript and SVG.
  • Applicable knowledge of web libraries and frameworks such as AngularJS, Polymer, and Closure.
  • Familiarity with the whole web stack, including protocols and web server optimization techniques.
  • Strong analytical skills and problem-solving aptitude.
  • Attention to detail.


Node.js is, while not a doubt, one of all the additional interesting technologies in use nowadays, and it’s full-grown into one of all the foremost popular platforms used for internet applications, services, and desktop apps. It’s my hope that when looking at this course, you currently have a solid foundation to begin writing your own Node applications.

If you wanna learn, and from all of us here at DevOpsSchool, thank you for watching!

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How to Become a JavaScript Developer?

Javascript is everywhere. If we are working on a small startup or a large company, most of them do not talk about any kind of website or app that is always on the lookout for someone with Javascript knowledge. There are millions of web pages built on JavaScript and it’s not going anywhere, at least for now.

What is a Javascript Developer?

JavaScript (JS) is a type of web programming language that is supported in all web browsers and devices and is the language that gives JavaScript developers the control and power to create, enhance and modify websites. Some almost 1/3 of all developer jobs JavaScript is required knowledge.

What does a Javascript Developer do?

JavaScript developers are responsible for the programming, development, and implementation of a website, and they may find themselves grappling with the variety of programming duties that go into building websites. They may be responsible for the entire site or only specific aspects or pages of one or more websites.

Web development is a very challenging task that requires a variety of skills such as collaboration, communication, and technical writing.

Role and Responsibility of JavaScript Developer:

  • Troubleshooting and Debugging Applications.
  • Monitoring, Updates, and Security.
  • Server Engineering and Admin Responsibilities.
  • End-User Support and Training.
  • Project Management, Collaboration, Communication.

Essentially, they are responsible for implementing the front-end logic that defines how the visual elements of a web app behave. Typically these developers work on the frontend, closely supported by backend developers and other front-end developers who specialize in markup and styling.

Skill Required for JavaScript Developer:

  • Experience using HTML, CSS, and JavaScript to build dynamic websites or web applications.
  • Experience with React, Angular, or Vue.
  • Strong knowledge of web markup, including HTML5 and CSS3.
  • Strong knowledge of native JavaScript, including ES5, ES6, and a strong understanding of browser compatibility implications.
  • Proficiency with jQuery and Bootstrap frameworks.


JavaScript developer salary largely depends on the role that they occupy and they are in the industry. The average salary of a JavaScript Developer in India is ₹ 6,15,893 to ₹ 12,35,013 per year. JavaScript developers mainly work with frameworks such as Springboot technologies.

Future Scope of JavaScript Developer:

If you are considering a career as a JavaScript developer, you will be pleased to know that JavaScript is one of the most sought-after skills in the programming industry today.

JavaScript is the main force behind the rapidly evolving Internet. It is the present and will be the future. The high-level comprehensive development of the programming language, emphasizing the fact that JavaScript future.

So, if you are planning to become a JavaScript expert, you can expect to be highly employable.

To start with JavaScript, check out the DevOpsSchool course. You’ll learn basic structures and techniques and dive into advanced JavaScript concepts. You’ll even also join our Online and Classroom Programs.

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Top programming languages in the world & their courses and certifications?

The world is turning into smarter day by day with the quick development of Automation, computing, Blockchain, etc. And at the middle of it, somewhere, are programming languages. In fact, Labour Statistics have expected a 21% growth for programming jobs within the returning decade, which is quite 4x the common for all occupations. however attempting to start out out with programming is a frightening escapade, particularly for professionals with no previous expertise. thus if you’re one who cannot decide wherever to start, don’t worry as a result of we’ve got you coated. the following article aims to grant you a fast examine the highest Programming Languages within the world & their courses and certifications?


Owned by the Oracle Corporation, Java is one of the oldest, most typical, in-demand programming languages in use these days. Well, think about a number of your favorite internet apps and games. It’s extremely probably that Java plays an enormous role within the code that creates their work. Another necessary factor that has kept Java’s magic intact among internet development corporations is its independence from platforms. This helps developers to basically “write once, work anywhere”(WORA). Java is everyplace and also the demand for sturdy developers is virtually high.

How does it work?

In Java, programs don’t seem to be compiled into practicable files; they’re compiled into bytecode (as mentioned earlier), that the JVM (Java Virtual Machine) then executes at runtime. Java source code is compiled into bytecode after we use the javac compiler. The bytecode gets saved on the disk with the file extension.

Reasons for Demand:

  • With its presence in almost 3 billion devices, Java’s new frameworks such as Spring, Struts, and Hibernate have also become very popular.
  • It is favored by enterprises, with roughly 90 percent of Fortune 500 companies use Java for building applications and back-end systems.
  • Java is highly recognized for its scalability and portability across multiple platforms from mainframe data centers to smartphones.
  • With millions of users across the globe, the popular users of Java include Barclays, HCL, Capital One, etc.
  • Forms the base for and is used in a multitude of domains including mobile application, web development, system programming, and big data.
  • Its powerful features include strong memory management, high performance, backward compatible and top-notch security.


Developed by the technical school big Google itself, Go is one of the newest players within the programming platform. it’s an open-source language that produces it simple to form easy, secure, and productive computer code. It combines the most effective aspects of useful and object-oriented programming, also as options a valuable set of intrinsical development tools.

How does it work?

Go was originally designed for programs associated with networking and infrastructure. it absolutely was meant to switch widespread high-performance server-side languages like Java and C++. Today, Go is used for a spread of applications like cloud and server-side applications, DevOps, command-line tools, and far additional.

Reasons for Demand:

  • Popular projects like Kubernetes, Docker, Hugo, Hyperledger Blockchain, and Ethereum are developed using Golang.
  • The language is straightforward to grasp even for the new programmers while being extremely powerful at the same time.
  • Supports multithreading at large and is hence used by a lot of companies that rely heavily on distributed systems.
  • Go has been optimized by Google to be incredibly efficient with memory and has blazing fast speed.
  • It provides high performance like C/C++ and has efficient concurrency handling like Java.
  • It is widely used in startups and some of the companies that use the language are Walmart, Springboard, Siemens, Dell.


TypeScript might be a superset of the JavaScript language that has a single open-source compiler and is developed within the main by one trafficker (Microsoft.) The goal of the matter is to help catch mistakes early through a sorting system and to make JavaScript development further economical.

How does it work?

TypeScript works by adding increased syntax to JavaScript so transforming it to JavaScript when the typescript compiler will its own checks. It does not modification JavaScript’s kind of system. Instead, it adds a lot of checks to it.

Reasons for Demand:

  • TypeScript simplifies JavaScript code, making it easier to read and debug.
  • TypeScript gives us all the benefits of ES6 (ECMAScript 6), plus more productivity.
  • TypeScript can help us to avoid painful bugs that developers commonly run into when writing JavaScript by type checking the code.
  • TypeScript is a modern programming language loved by engineers for making web development a lot easier.
  • You can use TypeScript everywhere instead of JavaScript, as it compiles to regular JS code. That’s another reason for its demand.


Scala could be a programming language used for practical programming and powerful static systems. It’s object-oriented and runs on JVM. It’s the aptitude to interoperate with existing Java code and libraries. It’s powerfully thought of to be a static kind of language and doesn’t have an idea of primitive information.

How does it work?

The compiler in Scala works during a similar fashion because of the Java compiler. It gets the source code and generates Java byte-code which will be dead severally on any commonplace JVM (Java Virtual Machine). Scala could be a statically typed language. Scala will execute Java.

Reasons for Demand:

  • Scala programming language variables are immutable and can be easily overloaded in Java. In addition to this, it also offers to adopt new languages like Python, Ruby, etc. to implement functional programming.
  • Scala is a language that is inherently more expressive than Java. The developers who learn Scala after Java find it easier and interesting to write code in Scala. To get the beauty of this language in comparison with Java.
  • A developer needs to be in demand always. The main reason or use of Scala is a better growth and job. Learning Scala will increase your demand and will make you even more marketable. Many companies like Twitter, LinkedIn, Foursquare, etc are using Scala.
  • Scala can be said as a language that is growing fast and lots of programmers going to join the Scala bandwagon. Even developers who know Java are now moving to learn Scala. There are many new libraries and frameworks that are being built on application of Scala.
  • A Java programming finds it difficult to learn any functional language. uses of Scala is easy due to its object-oriented functionality. Scala has clean syntax, nice libraries, good online documentation, and lots of people in the industry using it.


Along with HTML and CSS, Javascript is that the programming language that engineered the internet. So, it’s a fairly huge deal. Universally referred to as the language of internet developers, javascript could be a feature-rich object-based scripting language that includes asynchronous event handling and crisp syntax, it’s found widespread use within the field of internet development. What started off as an easy client-side scripting language, is currently a highlight inside the net development community that includes multiple frameworks for each backend and frontend development.

How does it work?

JavaScript is what’s known as a Client-side Scripting Language. within a standard website, you place some JavaScript code See however sites Work for details on sites. once the browser loads the page, the browser features a constitutional interpreter that reads the JavaScript code it finds on the page and runs it.

Reasons for Demand:

  • In extension to absolute JavaScript, various popular libraries and frameworks make JavaScript development easier.
  • Most accessible supporting technologies related to JavaScript are JSON, jQuery, Angular, React (JS Library), etc.
  • Fundamentally a front-end language, it can also be practiced on the server-side throughout Node.js to create scalable network applications.
  • Majority of tech giants like Google, Facebook, SAP, Dell, Accenture, etc rely on Javascript to design interactive web pages and dynamically display content to users.


PHP is used by 79% of all the websites whose server-side programming language we all know. it’s the main used for developing dynamic and data-heavy websites and applications. it’s been the cornerstone of the net for a protracted time. PHP could be an easy, fast, and platform-independent general programming language with over 631,000 repositories on GitHub.

How does it work?

The PHP software system works with the webserver, which is that the software system that delivers sites to the planet. after you A URL into your net browser’s address bar, you are causation a message to the webserver at that URL, asking it to send you an HTML file. Your browser reads the HTML file and displays the online page.

Reasons for Demand:

  • PHP is used by 79.0% of all the websites whose server-side programming languages are known.
  • PHP is simple, fast and platform-independent.
  • It is 631k repositories on GitHub and has a community of 5.9M to back it up.
  • Companies that have publicly declared usage of PHP include Facebook, Yahoo, Wikipedia.


AngularJS could be a client-side JavaScript MVC framework to develop a dynamic internet application. It extends the flexibility of HTML by adding intrinsical attributes and parts and additionally provides a capability to form custom attributes victimization easy JavaScript.

How does it work?

AngularJS could also be a structural framework for dynamic net apps. It permits you to use hypertext markup language as your model language and permits you to extends HTML syntax to specify your application’s elements clearly and compactly. AngularJS’s information binding and dependency injection eliminate a lot of the code you’d otherwise need to write.

Reasons for Demand:

  • Modularity is one of the prime reasons why AngularJS is popular among web developers.
  • AngularJS recognizes the need to create an additional module so that it can be combined with other developed application modules.
  • It allows and enables web developers to create multiple modules for a single web application.
  • AngularJS is one of the skills unique to this job, along with React. js, Code. js, Javascript, and CSS.
  • Today, AngularJS is a leading framework for building dynamic, single-page web applications (known as SPAs), including ones like PayPal and Netflix.


Node. js is primarily used for non-blocking, event-driven servers, because of its single-threaded nature. It’s used for ancient websites and back-end API services time period was designed with the period of time, push-based architectures in mind.

How does it work?

Node. js is the JavaScript runtime environment which is based on Google’s V8 Engine with the help of Node, Js we can run the JavaScript outside of the browser, js is that it is single-threaded, based on event-driven architecture, and non-blocking based on the I/O model.

Reasons for Demand:

  • A Single Language for All Layers. Another key benefit of Node.
  • It can be Hosted Anywhere.
  • It’s lightning Fast. Node.
  • It is JavaScript Everywhere. One of the biggest reasons why Node.
  • It is Lightweight. Typically, Node.
  • High Performance.
  • It is Easy to Modify and Maintain.


In this article, we have listed the top most popular programming languages to learn. Now, it’s your choice where you want to land your career or choose the right programming language for you, If you wanna learn then i would suggest you check out DevOpsSchool it is a great platform for learning. Get an insight to all the details we mentioned, and choose accordingly. So, make sure you should hold a good command on a specific language you choose for programming.You’ll even also join our Online and Classroom Programs.
And that concludes my list of the Top Programming Languages. Hope this article proved useful to you.

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Complete guide of TypeScript certification courses, tutorials & training


TypeScript lets you write JavaScript the method you actually want to. TypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that amasses to plain JavaScript. A TypeScript is a pure object concerned with classes, interfaces, and statically typed like C# or Java. Mastering TypeScript can support programmers to write object-oriented programs and have them compiled to JavaScript, both on the client-side and server-side.

TypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that compiles to plain JavaScript. It is pure object-oriented with classes, interfaces, and statically typed programming languages like C# or Java. You will need a compiler to compile and generate the code in the file. Basically, TypeScript is the ES6 version of JavaScript with some additional features.

TypeScript used for:

TypeScript remains a superset of the JavaScript language that devises a single open-source compiler and is developed mostly using a single vendor Microsoft. The goalmouth of TypeScript is to help catch faults first through a type system and to variety JavaScript development more proficient.

Why do we need TypeScript?

TypeScript simplifies JavaScript code, making it easier to read and correct. TypeScript offers highly creative development tools for JavaScript IDEs and performs, like static checking. TypeScript creates code easier to read and comprehend. Using TypeScript, we can create a huge development over basic JavaScript.

What do I need to learn to use TypeScript?

TypeScript is basically a JS linter. Or, JS with certification that the compiler can understand. Therefore, indifference to other languages comparable to CoffeeScript which enhances syntactic sugar, or else PureScript which does not look similar to JavaScript at all, you do not need to learn a ration to start writing TypeScript code. Kinds in TS are optional, and all JS file is an effective TypeScript file. But the compiler will protest if you have type mistakes in your first files, it does stretch you back to a JavaScript file that works as it did before. Anywhere you are, TypeScript will meet you there, and then it is informal to build up your skills progressively.

How to get started with TypeScript?

To compile your TS code, you need to install tsc short for the TypeScript compiler. The easiest way to do it is over the terminal. This can remain done simply through npm by using the following command:

If you want to use TypeScript with Visual Studio Code, there is a handy guide on their website.

Once you have installed tsc, you can compile your files with tsc filename.ts.

Migrating your files from JavaScript to TypeScript

Let’s say that we want to change the following JavaScript file to TypeScript due to odd behavior:

Good news. Any JS file is technically a valid TypeScript file, so you’re up to a great start – just switch the file extension to .ts from .js.

TypeScript has type inference, which means that it can automatically infer some of the types you use without you adding them. In this case, it presumes that the function sums two variables of type any, which is true but of no great use right now.

If we want to sum only numbers, we can add a type signature to my_sum to make it accept only numbers.

Now, TypeScript provides us with an error.

Good thing we found where the error is: To additional escape errors like these, you can also add kind definitions to variables.

TypeScript is quite flexible in what it can do and how it can help you.

Features of TypeScript:

To sum it up, I think TypeScript will remain to rise in popularity aimed at the predictable future. It offers great development knowledge, does not have much competition, and enjoys high acceptance rates among new open-source projects.

Object-Oriented Language: TypeScript offers a whole feature of an object-oriented programming language such as inheritance, classes, interfaces, modules, etc. In TypeScript, we can write code for both server-side as well as client-side development.

TypeScript supports JavaScript libraries: TypeScript supports all JavaScript elements. It permits the developers to use existing JavaScript code with TypeScript. Here, we can use each of the JavaScript frameworks, tools, and other libraries easily.

JavaScript is TypeScript: It means the code written in JavaScript with valid .js extension can be transformed to TypeScript through changing the extension from (.js to .ts) and compiled with other TypeScript files.

TypeScript is portable: TypeScript is portable because it can be executed on any device, browser, or operating system. It can be run in any environment where JavaScript runs on. It is not specific to any virtual machine for execution.

DOM Manipulation: TypeScript can be used to manipulate the DOM for removing or adding elements related to JavaScript.

TypeScript is just JS: TypeScript code is not executed on any browsers straight. The program written in TypeScript constantly starts with JavaScript then ends with JavaScript. Henceforth, we only need to know JavaScript to use it in TypeScript. The code written in TypeScript is compiled and transformed into its JavaScript comparable for the execution. This procedure is recognized as Trans-piled. With the support of JavaScript code, browsers can read the TypeScript code and show the output.

Advantage of TypeScript over JavaScript:

  • TypeScript continuously highlights errors at compilation time throughout the time of development, while JavaScript points out errors at the runtime.
  • TypeScript supports strongly typed or static typing, but this is not in JavaScript.
  • TypeScript runs on some browser or JavaScript engine.
  • Great tooling supports with IntelliSense, which offers active hints as the code is added.
  • It has a namespace concept through defining a module.

TypeScript Variables:

A variable is the storage location, which remains used to store worth info to be referenced and used by programs. It acts as a container for worth in code and must be professed earlier the use. We can declare a variable by using the var keyword. In TypeScript, the variable follows the same identification rule as of JavaScript variable declaration. These rules are –

  • The variable name must be an alphabet or numeric digit.
  • The variable name cannot start with digits.
  • The variable name cannot contain spaces and special personalities, but the underscore (_) and the dollar ($) sign.

In ES6, we can describe variables using the let and const keywords. These variables have similar syntax for variable declaration and initialization but differ in scope and usage. In TypeScript, there is continuously suggested to define a variable using the let keyword because it delivers the type protection.

The let keyword is similar to the var keyword in some respects, and const is a let that prevents re-assignment to a variable.

Collections in TypeScript:

TypeScript supports two kinds of collections:

arrays (where all the members are of the same type and are accessed by position)

tuples (where each member can be of a different type).

Control Statements in TypeScript:

1. If the statement

2. If else statement

3. If else if statement

If Statement

If the statement is used to execute a block of statements if the specified condition is true.


If else statement

If else statement is used to execute whichever of two blocks of statements depends upon the situation. If the situation is true and if the block will execute or else the block will execute.


If else if statement

If else statement is used to execute one block of statements from many depends upon the condition. If condition1 is true then the block of statements1 will be executed, else if condition2 is a true block of statements2 is executed, and so on. If no condition is true, and else block of statements will remain executed.


TypeScript Control Statements Example:

What is a TypeScript application?

Software, web development, programming concept. Abstract Programming language and program code on screen laptop. Laptop and icons company network. Technology process of Software development (Software, web development, programming concept. Abstract Pr

TypeScript is a programming language developed then maintained through Microsoft. It is a strict syntactical superset of JavaScript and adds elective static typing to the language. TypeScript might be used to develop JavaScript applications for both server-side and client-side execution as with Node. Js or Deno.

Scope of TypeScript:

Variable scopes in TypeScript: Here scope means the discernibility of variable. The scope describes that we can access the variable or not. TypeScript variables can be of the following scopes:

Local Scope: As the name stated, are professed within the block like methods, loops, etc. Local variables are available only within the construct where they are declared.

Global Scope: If the variable is professed outside the construct then we can access the variable anyplace. This is recognized as Global Scope.

Class Scope: If a variable is professed inside the class and we can access that variable within the class only.

What are the Objectives for TypeScript Training?

•             Comprehend TypeScript conceptions

•             Apply different techniques to visualize data using multiple graphs and dashboards

•             Tool TypeScript in the organization to monitor operative intelligence

•             Troubleshoot various application log issues using SPL (Search Processing Language)

•             Implement indexers, forwarders, deployment servers, and deployers in TypeScript.

What are the benefits of TypeScript Certification?

Certifications continuously play a critical role in any occupation. You might find some Pay-Per-Click Intermediate specialists who will tell you that certifications do not hold considerable value; this certification validates an individual’s capability to generate complex searches, reports, and dashboards with Pay-Per-Click Intermediate’s core software to become the most out of their data. A Pay-Per-Click Intermediate Core Certified Operator can search, use fields, use lookups, and make basic statistical bits of intelligence then dashboards in the Pay-Per-Click Intermediate Initiative or Pay-Per-Click Intermediate Cloud Platforms. This certification validates an individual’s capability to navigate then use the Pay-Per-Click Intermediate Software.

Agenda of TypeScript

TypeScript Course

Hello everybody, if you are thinking of learning TypeScript this year then looking for some exceptional resources like books, courses, and tutorials, then you have come to the right place. Now my last limited articles, I have shared several of the best Angular framework tutorials and courses, and today, I am going to share several of the best TypeScript online courses you can join to learn it through yourself. DevOpsSchool is one of the best institutes for certification.


Overall, TypeScript is a great tool to have in your toolset even if you do not use it to its full capability. It is informal to start small and grow slowly, learning and adding new features as you go. TypeScript is practical and welcoming to beginners, so there is no need to be afraid.

I hope this article will be useful in your TypeScript. If you want help or have some questions, be sure to ask them on our social media like Twitter or Facebook.

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List of Top 11 Programming Languages in 2021

  1. JavaScript
  2. Python
  3. Java
  4. Go
  5. TypeScript
  6. C++
  7. Ruby
  8. PHP
  9. C#
  10. C
  11. SQL

What is programming Languages?

  • A programming language is a set of words, symbols and codes that enables human to communicate with computers.
  • It is a set of rules that provides a way of telling a computer what operations to perform
  • It is a set of rules for communicating an algorithm
  • It provides a linguistic framework for describing computations

Use of Programming Language?

  • The programing language enables us to write efficient programs and develop online solutions such as- mobile applications, web applications, and games, etc. 
  •  Programming languages are used to facilitate communication about the task of organizing and manipulating information, and to express algorithms precisely.

What are the types of programming language?

There are two types of programming languages, which can be categorized into the following ways:

  1. Low level language

(a)  Machine language (1GL)

(b)  Assembly language (2GL)           

2. High level language    

(a) Procedural-Oriented language (3GL)

(b)  Problem-Oriented language (4GL)

(c)  Natural language (5GL)

  1. Low level language :This language is the most understandable language used by computer to perform its operations.

It can be further categorized into:

a) Machine Language (1GL) : A first-generation programming language (1GL) is a machine-level programming language. This makes the language suitable for the understanding of the machine but far more difficult to interpret and learn by the human programmer.

b) Assembly Language : An assembly language is a type of low-level programming language that is intended to communicate directly with a computer’s hardware. Unlike machine language, which consists of binary and hexadecimal characters, assembly languages are designed to be readable by humans.

 2. High level language: A high-level language is any programming language that enables development of a program in a much more user-friendly programming context and is generally independent of the computer’s hardware architecture.

High level language can be further categorized as:

(a) Procedural-Oriented language (3GL): With a procedural language, often called a third-generation language (3GL), a programmer uses a series of English-like words to write instructions. While Programmers use an object-oriented programming (OOP) language or object-oriented program development tool to implement objects in a program.

(b) Problem-Oriented language (4GL): It allows the users to specify what the output should be, without describing all the details of how the data should be manupulated to produce the result. This is one step ahead from 3GL. These are result oriented and include database query language.

(c) Natural language (5GL): A fifth-generation programming language (5GL) is any programming language based on problem-solving using constraints given to the program, rather than using an algorithm written by a programmer. Most constraint-based and logic programming languages and some other declarative languages are fifth-generation languages.

 Which programming Language is most popular?

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