Top 10 Intelligent Agents

What are Intelligent Agents?

Intelligent agents are software entities that can perceive their environment, reason about it, and take actions to achieve specific goals or objectives. They are designed to interact with their environment autonomously, making decisions and performing tasks based on their understanding of the environment and their programming.

How does work Intelligent Agents?

Intelligent agents work by perceiving their environment, reasoning about the perceived information, and taking action to achieve their goals.

Here is a general overview of how intelligent agents function:

  • Perception: Intelligent agents use sensors, data sources, or inputs to perceive their environment. This can include cameras, microphones, temperature sensors, GPS, user inputs, or data from external systems. The agents gather information about the state of the environment relevant to their tasks.
  • Knowledge Representation: Intelligent agents store and represent their knowledge about the environment and the tasks they need to perform. This knowledge can be pre-programmed or learned from data using machine learning algorithms. It includes rules, models, facts, and patterns that help the agent reason and make decisions.
  • Reasoning and Decision-Making: Based on the perceived information and their knowledge, intelligent agents employ reasoning and decision-making algorithms to process and interpret the data. They analyze the information, apply logical rules, infer relationships, and evaluate different options to make informed decisions.

Here is a list of 10 notable intelligent agents:

  1. Apple Siri
  2. Google Assistant
  3. Amazon Alexa
  4. Microsoft Cortana
  5. IBM Watson
  6. OpenAI ChatGPT
  7. Autonomous Vehicles
  8. Recommendation Systems
  9. Smart Home Systems
  10. Virtual Assistants for Business

1. Apple Siri

Siri is Apple’s virtual assistant available on iOS devices, macOS, Apple Watch, and HomePod. It provides voice commands, device control, and integration with Apple services.

Key features:

  • Voice Commands: Siri allows users to perform various tasks and control their Apple devices using voice commands. You can ask Siri to send messages, make phone calls, set reminders and alarms, play music, open apps, and more.
  • Natural Language Understanding: Siri is designed to understand natural language queries, allowing users to ask questions in a conversational manner. You can ask Siri for information, directions, weather updates, sports scores, and other queries.
  • Device Control: Siri enables users to control various functions of their Apple devices hands-free. You can use Siri to adjust device settings, toggle Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, change display brightness, enable/disable certain features, and more.

2. Google Assistant

Developed by Google, Google Assistant is available on various devices and platforms, providing voice-activated assistance, smart home control, and integration with Google services.

Key features:

  • Voice Commands: Google Assistant allows users to perform various tasks and interact with their devices using voice commands. You can ask Google Assistant to send messages, make phone calls, set reminders and alarms, play music, open apps, and more.
  • Natural Language Understanding: Google Assistant is designed to understand natural language queries, making it possible to ask questions in a conversational manner. You can ask Google Assistant for information, weather updates, sports scores, directions, and other queries.
  • Device Control: Google Assistant enables users to control various functions of their compatible devices hands-free. You can use Google Assistant to adjust device settings, control smart home devices, toggle Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, adjust volume, and more.

3. Amazon Alexa

Amazon’s intelligent personal assistant powers the Echo devices, allowing users to interact, control smart home devices, and access various services using voice commands.

Key features:

  • Voice Commands: Alexa allows users to perform various tasks and interact with their devices using voice commands. You can ask Alexa to play music, answer questions, set reminders and alarms, make phone calls, control smart home devices, and more.
  • Skills: Alexa’s Skills are like apps that expand its capabilities. There are thousands of third-party skills available, allowing you to order food, play games, get news updates, control your smart home devices, and much more.
  • Smart Home Control: Alexa integrates with a wide range of smart home devices, allowing you to control lights, thermostats, cameras, door locks, and other compatible devices using voice commands.

4. Microsoft Cortana

Cortana is Microsoft’s virtual assistant available on Windows 10 devices, Xbox, and other Microsoft platforms. It offers voice interaction, productivity features, and integration with Microsoft services.

Key features:

  • Voice Commands: Cortana allows users to perform various tasks and interact with their devices using voice commands. You can ask Cortana to set reminders, send emails, make calendar appointments, launch apps, provide weather updates, and more.
  • Integration with Windows Devices: Cortana is deeply integrated into the Windows operating system, allowing users to access and control various features and settings on their Windows devices using voice commands.
  • Productivity Assistance: Cortana can help you stay organized and productive by managing your calendar, setting reminders, creating to-do lists, and providing suggestions based on your preferences and habits.

5. IBM Watson:

Watson is IBM’s AI-powered platform that offers a range of intelligent services, including natural language processing, machine learning, and data analysis, for various industries and applications.

Key features:

  • Natural Language Processing (NLP): Watson has advanced NLP capabilities, allowing it to understand and interpret human language, including context, sentiment, and intent. This enables more accurate and meaningful interactions.
  • Machine Learning: Watson utilizes machine learning techniques to continuously improve its understanding and performance. It can learn from user interactions and adapt its responses over time to provide more accurate and personalized results.
  • Cognitive Computing: Watson is designed to mimic human thought processes and cognitive abilities. It can reason, learn, and make decisions based on the information it has analyzed, allowing it to provide intelligent insights and recommendations.

6. OpenAI ChatGPT:

A conversational AI model developed by OpenAI that uses deep learning to generate human-like responses and engage in natural language conversations.

Key features:

  • Natural Language Processing (NLP): ChatGPT is designed to understand and generate human-like text in response to user inputs. It leverages deep learning techniques to analyze and generate language-based responses.
  • Conversational Engagement: ChatGPT is built to engage in interactive and dynamic conversations. It can maintain context and continuity across multiple turns, making the conversation flow more naturally.
  • Broad Knowledge Base: ChatGPT has been trained on a diverse range of internet text, giving it access to a wide array of general knowledge. It can provide information, answer questions, and offer explanations on a wide range of topics.

7. Autonomous Vehicles:

Intelligent agents are used in self-driving cars that use sensors, computer vision, and machine learning algorithms to navigate and make decisions on the road.

Key features:

  • Sensing and Perception Systems: Autonomous vehicles are equipped with various sensors such as cameras, radar, lidar, and ultrasonic sensors. These sensors help the vehicle perceive its surroundings, detect objects, and understand the environment in real-time.
  • Localization and Mapping: Autonomous vehicles utilize advanced GPS systems, inertial measurement units (IMUs), and mapping technologies to accurately determine their location and create detailed maps of the environment. This enables the vehicle to navigate and plan its route.
  • Computer Vision and Object Recognition: Computer vision algorithms analyze the sensor data to detect and recognize objects such as vehicles, pedestrians, traffic signs, and traffic lights. This information is crucial for making decisions and ensuring safe navigation.

8. Recommendation Systems:

Intelligent agents are used in e-commerce platforms, streaming services, and social media platforms to provide personalized recommendations based on user preferences, behavior, and data analysis.

Key features:

  • Collaborative Filtering: Collaborative filtering is a common technique used in recommendation systems. It analyzes user behavior, preferences, and historical data to identify patterns and make recommendations based on similarities between users or items.
  • Content-Based Filtering: Content-based filtering focuses on the characteristics and attributes of items. It analyzes item features and user preferences to recommend items that are similar in content or have similar properties to items the user has liked or interacted with before.
  • Personalization: Recommendation systems aim to provide personalized recommendations based on the individual user’s preferences, interests, and behavior. They take into account user profiles, purchase history, ratings, and other relevant data to offer tailored recommendations.

9. Smart Home Systems:

Intelligent agents that control and automate various devices and systems within a smart home, enabling voice-based control and integration of different devices.

Key features:

  • Remote Access and Control: Smart home systems allow users to remotely access and control their home devices and systems from anywhere using smartphones, tablets, or computers. This includes turning lights on/off, adjusting thermostats, locking doors, and more.
  • Voice Control: Many smart home systems integrate with voice assistants like Amazon Alexa, Google Assistant, or Apple Siri. Users can control their devices and systems using voice commands, making it convenient and hands-free.
  • Home Security: Smart home systems often include security features such as smart locks, door/window sensors, motion detectors, and video surveillance cameras. These features enhance home security by allowing users to monitor and control access to their homes remotely.

10. Virtual Assistants for Business:

Intelligent agents designed for business environments, providing features such as scheduling, data analysis, document management, and task automation to enhance productivity and efficiency.

Key features:

  • Natural Language Processing (NLP): Virtual assistants for businesses employ advanced NLP capabilities to understand and interpret human language. They can comprehend user queries, commands, and conversations, allowing for more natural and intuitive interactions.
  • Task Automation: Virtual assistants can automate various tasks to streamline business operations. They can schedule meetings, set reminders, send emails, create to-do lists, generate reports, and perform other administrative tasks, saving time and increasing productivity.
  • Calendar and Schedule Management: Virtual assistants can integrate with calendar applications and help manage schedules. They can schedule appointments, send meeting invitations, provide reminders, and handle conflicts or reschedule requests.
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What is Python Programming and why it is important?

Hey folks, here we are with the topic of Python programming and its importance. Here we will discuss about python and its importance. Python is associate understood, object-oriented, high-level artificial language with dynamic linguistics. It has constitutional information structures, combined with dynamic typewriting and dynamic binding, creating it terribly engaging for fast application development, scripting, or as a glue language to attach existing elements along.

What is Python?

Python is integrated understood, object-oriented, high-level artificial language with dynamic linguistics. Its high-level inbuilt information structures, combined with dynamic writing and dynamic binding, create it terribly engaging for speedy Application Development, likewise as to be used as a scripting or glue language to attach existing elements along. Python’s easy, simple to be told syntax emphasizes readability and so reduces the value of program maintenance. Python supports modules and packages, which inspires program modularity and code apply. The Python interpreter and also the in depth normal library square measure out there in supply or binary type for gratis for all major platforms, and may be freely distributed.

Often, programmers fall loving with Python attributable to the redoubled productivity it provides. Since there’s no compilation step, the edit-test-debug cycle is implausibly quick. Debugging Python programs is easy a bug or unhealthy input can ne’er cause a segmentation fault. Instead, once the interpreter discovers miscalculation, it raises Associate in attention exception. Once the program does not catch the exception, the interpreter prints a stack trace. A supply level computer programme permits examination of native and world variables, analysis of impulsive expressions, setting breakpoints, stepping through the code a line at a time, and so on. The computer programme is written in Python itself, testifying to Python’s self-examining power. On the opposite hand, typically the fastest thanks to correct a program is to feature a couple of print statements to the source the quick edit-test-debug cycle makes this straightforward approach terribly effective.

How python works?

The Python, serves alternative programing language, which is fully arithmetic. This means that what you’ll do in Python, you can do the other programing language, and contrariwise. They’re all equally communicatory.

That said, Python will appear to be the language of selection in an exceedingly sort of domains (for example, machine learning) due to glorious library support, ability to quickly example, so forth. Personally, I notice Python partaking as a result of its therefore capable, however really easy to know.

It will have its “drawbacks” (depends on your perspective): dynamically written, taken, and so forth.

The Python converts everything in its interpreter to computer memory unit as C computer memory unit compiled code to mimic a compiled .dll file and writes it once the interpreter debugs it directly into a DLL file. And Pythons main.c file sets 2 loops into python main () to incorporate it and execute it in an exceedingly nested second loop. One loop is that the main loop and also the second is named in from the python. Which has the PyObject.dll with the pyobject second loop methodology.

What are the uses of Python?

Clearly, Python may be an in style and in-demand talent to be told. However what’s python programming used for? We’ve already shortly touched on a number of the areas it are often applied to, and we’ve dilated on these and a lot of Python examples below. Python are often used for:

  • AI and machine learning

Because Python is such a stable, flexible, and straightforward programing language, it’s good for numerous machine learning (ML) and AI (AI) comes. In fact, Python is among the favourite languages among knowledge scientists, and there square measure several Python machine learning and AI libraries and packages out there.

  • Data analytics

Much like AI and machine learning, knowledge analytics is another chop-chop developing field that utilises Python programming. At a time once we’re making a lot of knowledge than ever before, there’s a requirement for people who will collect, manipulate and organise the knowledge.

  • Data mental image

Data mental image is another in style and developing space of interest. Again, it plays into several of the strengths of Python. Also as its flexibility and also the truth its ASCII text file, Python provides a spread of graphing libraries with all types of options.

  • Programming applications

You can program all types of applications exploitation Python. The general language are often accustomed scan and build file directories, produce GUIs and Apis, and more. Whether or not its block chain applications, audio and video apps, or machine learning applications, you’ll be able to build all with Python.

  • Web development

Python may be a nice selection for net development. This can be mostly because of the actual fact that there square measure several Python net development frameworks to decide on from, like Django, Pyramid, and Flask. These frameworks are accustomed produce sites and services like Spotify, Reddit and Mozilla.

What are the importance of python?

The Python is a general purpose and high level artificial language. You’ll use Python for developing desktop GUI applications, net sites and web applications. Also, Python, as a high level artificial language, permits you to target core practicality of the applying by taking care of common programming tasks. The straightforward syntax rules of the artificial language any makes it easier for you to stay the code base decipherable and application rectifiable. There also are variety of reasons why you must like Python to alternative programming languages.

  • Readable and reparable Code.
  • Multiple Programming Paradigms.
  • Compatible with Major Platforms and Systems.
  • Many Open supply Frameworks and Tools.
  • Simplify complicated software package Development.
  • Adopt check Driven Development.
  • Python is employed in machine learning & computer science, fields at the stylish of technical school.
  • Python programming is flexible in terms of platform and purpose

What are the benefits of python?

Would you prefer to create a robust future and take your career to consecutive level? Learn to program Python, here we have a tendency to area unit talking regarding the programing language. Allow us to scan the advantages of learning python and recognize the importance of python. You’ll perceive this programing language quickly, and you’ll bring home the bacon an incredible career within the information science development business once you utilize these skills. Moreover, with new apps for machine learning that emerge daily, the demand for Python programmers can grow even higher. Here are some of the benefits of python programming:

  • Easy to browse, Learn and Write. Python may be a high-level artificial language that has English-like syntax.
  • Improved Productivity.
  • Interpreted Language.
  • Dynamically written.
  • Free and ASCII text file.
  • Vast Libraries Support.
  • Portability.
  • Slow Speed.


So, this is the end of this article, hope you liked this article and you would be clear with your doubts. Python is associate understood, object-oriented, high-level artificial language with dynamic linguistics. It has constitutional information structures, combined with dynamic typewriting and dynamic binding, creating it terribly engaging for fast application development, scripting, or as a glue language to attach existing elements along.

Now if you want to enroll into python programming course then I would suggest you to visit DevOpsSchool. This is one of the best website for online learning and certification program.

Thank You!

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Top programming languages in the world & their courses and certifications?

The world is turning into smarter day by day with the quick development of Automation, computing, Blockchain, etc. And at the middle of it, somewhere, are programming languages. In fact, Labour Statistics have expected a 21% growth for programming jobs within the returning decade, which is quite 4x the common for all occupations. however attempting to start out out with programming is a frightening escapade, particularly for professionals with no previous expertise. thus if you’re one who cannot decide wherever to start, don’t worry as a result of we’ve got you coated. the following article aims to grant you a fast examine the highest Programming Languages within the world & their courses and certifications?


Owned by the Oracle Corporation, Java is one of the oldest, most typical, in-demand programming languages in use these days. Well, think about a number of your favorite internet apps and games. It’s extremely probably that Java plays an enormous role within the code that creates their work. Another necessary factor that has kept Java’s magic intact among internet development corporations is its independence from platforms. This helps developers to basically “write once, work anywhere”(WORA). Java is everyplace and also the demand for sturdy developers is virtually high.

How does it work?

In Java, programs don’t seem to be compiled into practicable files; they’re compiled into bytecode (as mentioned earlier), that the JVM (Java Virtual Machine) then executes at runtime. Java source code is compiled into bytecode after we use the javac compiler. The bytecode gets saved on the disk with the file extension.

Reasons for Demand:

  • With its presence in almost 3 billion devices, Java’s new frameworks such as Spring, Struts, and Hibernate have also become very popular.
  • It is favored by enterprises, with roughly 90 percent of Fortune 500 companies use Java for building applications and back-end systems.
  • Java is highly recognized for its scalability and portability across multiple platforms from mainframe data centers to smartphones.
  • With millions of users across the globe, the popular users of Java include Barclays, HCL, Capital One, etc.
  • Forms the base for and is used in a multitude of domains including mobile application, web development, system programming, and big data.
  • Its powerful features include strong memory management, high performance, backward compatible and top-notch security.


Developed by the technical school big Google itself, Go is one of the newest players within the programming platform. it’s an open-source language that produces it simple to form easy, secure, and productive computer code. It combines the most effective aspects of useful and object-oriented programming, also as options a valuable set of intrinsical development tools.

How does it work?

Go was originally designed for programs associated with networking and infrastructure. it absolutely was meant to switch widespread high-performance server-side languages like Java and C++. Today, Go is used for a spread of applications like cloud and server-side applications, DevOps, command-line tools, and far additional.

Reasons for Demand:

  • Popular projects like Kubernetes, Docker, Hugo, Hyperledger Blockchain, and Ethereum are developed using Golang.
  • The language is straightforward to grasp even for the new programmers while being extremely powerful at the same time.
  • Supports multithreading at large and is hence used by a lot of companies that rely heavily on distributed systems.
  • Go has been optimized by Google to be incredibly efficient with memory and has blazing fast speed.
  • It provides high performance like C/C++ and has efficient concurrency handling like Java.
  • It is widely used in startups and some of the companies that use the language are Walmart, Springboard, Siemens, Dell.


TypeScript might be a superset of the JavaScript language that has a single open-source compiler and is developed within the main by one trafficker (Microsoft.) The goal of the matter is to help catch mistakes early through a sorting system and to make JavaScript development further economical.

How does it work?

TypeScript works by adding increased syntax to JavaScript so transforming it to JavaScript when the typescript compiler will its own checks. It does not modification JavaScript’s kind of system. Instead, it adds a lot of checks to it.

Reasons for Demand:

  • TypeScript simplifies JavaScript code, making it easier to read and debug.
  • TypeScript gives us all the benefits of ES6 (ECMAScript 6), plus more productivity.
  • TypeScript can help us to avoid painful bugs that developers commonly run into when writing JavaScript by type checking the code.
  • TypeScript is a modern programming language loved by engineers for making web development a lot easier.
  • You can use TypeScript everywhere instead of JavaScript, as it compiles to regular JS code. That’s another reason for its demand.


Scala could be a programming language used for practical programming and powerful static systems. It’s object-oriented and runs on JVM. It’s the aptitude to interoperate with existing Java code and libraries. It’s powerfully thought of to be a static kind of language and doesn’t have an idea of primitive information.

How does it work?

The compiler in Scala works during a similar fashion because of the Java compiler. It gets the source code and generates Java byte-code which will be dead severally on any commonplace JVM (Java Virtual Machine). Scala could be a statically typed language. Scala will execute Java.

Reasons for Demand:

  • Scala programming language variables are immutable and can be easily overloaded in Java. In addition to this, it also offers to adopt new languages like Python, Ruby, etc. to implement functional programming.
  • Scala is a language that is inherently more expressive than Java. The developers who learn Scala after Java find it easier and interesting to write code in Scala. To get the beauty of this language in comparison with Java.
  • A developer needs to be in demand always. The main reason or use of Scala is a better growth and job. Learning Scala will increase your demand and will make you even more marketable. Many companies like Twitter, LinkedIn, Foursquare, etc are using Scala.
  • Scala can be said as a language that is growing fast and lots of programmers going to join the Scala bandwagon. Even developers who know Java are now moving to learn Scala. There are many new libraries and frameworks that are being built on application of Scala.
  • A Java programming finds it difficult to learn any functional language. uses of Scala is easy due to its object-oriented functionality. Scala has clean syntax, nice libraries, good online documentation, and lots of people in the industry using it.


Along with HTML and CSS, Javascript is that the programming language that engineered the internet. So, it’s a fairly huge deal. Universally referred to as the language of internet developers, javascript could be a feature-rich object-based scripting language that includes asynchronous event handling and crisp syntax, it’s found widespread use within the field of internet development. What started off as an easy client-side scripting language, is currently a highlight inside the net development community that includes multiple frameworks for each backend and frontend development.

How does it work?

JavaScript is what’s known as a Client-side Scripting Language. within a standard website, you place some JavaScript code See however sites Work for details on sites. once the browser loads the page, the browser features a constitutional interpreter that reads the JavaScript code it finds on the page and runs it.

Reasons for Demand:

  • In extension to absolute JavaScript, various popular libraries and frameworks make JavaScript development easier.
  • Most accessible supporting technologies related to JavaScript are JSON, jQuery, Angular, React (JS Library), etc.
  • Fundamentally a front-end language, it can also be practiced on the server-side throughout Node.js to create scalable network applications.
  • Majority of tech giants like Google, Facebook, SAP, Dell, Accenture, etc rely on Javascript to design interactive web pages and dynamically display content to users.


PHP is used by 79% of all the websites whose server-side programming language we all know. it’s the main used for developing dynamic and data-heavy websites and applications. it’s been the cornerstone of the net for a protracted time. PHP could be an easy, fast, and platform-independent general programming language with over 631,000 repositories on GitHub.

How does it work?

The PHP software system works with the webserver, which is that the software system that delivers sites to the planet. after you A URL into your net browser’s address bar, you are causation a message to the webserver at that URL, asking it to send you an HTML file. Your browser reads the HTML file and displays the online page.

Reasons for Demand:

  • PHP is used by 79.0% of all the websites whose server-side programming languages are known.
  • PHP is simple, fast and platform-independent.
  • It is 631k repositories on GitHub and has a community of 5.9M to back it up.
  • Companies that have publicly declared usage of PHP include Facebook, Yahoo, Wikipedia.


AngularJS could be a client-side JavaScript MVC framework to develop a dynamic internet application. It extends the flexibility of HTML by adding intrinsical attributes and parts and additionally provides a capability to form custom attributes victimization easy JavaScript.

How does it work?

AngularJS could also be a structural framework for dynamic net apps. It permits you to use hypertext markup language as your model language and permits you to extends HTML syntax to specify your application’s elements clearly and compactly. AngularJS’s information binding and dependency injection eliminate a lot of the code you’d otherwise need to write.

Reasons for Demand:

  • Modularity is one of the prime reasons why AngularJS is popular among web developers.
  • AngularJS recognizes the need to create an additional module so that it can be combined with other developed application modules.
  • It allows and enables web developers to create multiple modules for a single web application.
  • AngularJS is one of the skills unique to this job, along with React. js, Code. js, Javascript, and CSS.
  • Today, AngularJS is a leading framework for building dynamic, single-page web applications (known as SPAs), including ones like PayPal and Netflix.


Node. js is primarily used for non-blocking, event-driven servers, because of its single-threaded nature. It’s used for ancient websites and back-end API services time period was designed with the period of time, push-based architectures in mind.

How does it work?

Node. js is the JavaScript runtime environment which is based on Google’s V8 Engine with the help of Node, Js we can run the JavaScript outside of the browser, js is that it is single-threaded, based on event-driven architecture, and non-blocking based on the I/O model.

Reasons for Demand:

  • A Single Language for All Layers. Another key benefit of Node.
  • It can be Hosted Anywhere.
  • It’s lightning Fast. Node.
  • It is JavaScript Everywhere. One of the biggest reasons why Node.
  • It is Lightweight. Typically, Node.
  • High Performance.
  • It is Easy to Modify and Maintain.


In this article, we have listed the top most popular programming languages to learn. Now, it’s your choice where you want to land your career or choose the right programming language for you, If you wanna learn then i would suggest you check out DevOpsSchool it is a great platform for learning. Get an insight to all the details we mentioned, and choose accordingly. So, make sure you should hold a good command on a specific language you choose for programming.You’ll even also join our Online and Classroom Programs.
And that concludes my list of the Top Programming Languages. Hope this article proved useful to you.

Thank you!

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Complete guide of TypeScript certification courses, tutorials & training


TypeScript lets you write JavaScript the method you actually want to. TypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that amasses to plain JavaScript. A TypeScript is a pure object concerned with classes, interfaces, and statically typed like C# or Java. Mastering TypeScript can support programmers to write object-oriented programs and have them compiled to JavaScript, both on the client-side and server-side.

TypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that compiles to plain JavaScript. It is pure object-oriented with classes, interfaces, and statically typed programming languages like C# or Java. You will need a compiler to compile and generate the code in the file. Basically, TypeScript is the ES6 version of JavaScript with some additional features.

TypeScript used for:

TypeScript remains a superset of the JavaScript language that devises a single open-source compiler and is developed mostly using a single vendor Microsoft. The goalmouth of TypeScript is to help catch faults first through a type system and to variety JavaScript development more proficient.

Why do we need TypeScript?

TypeScript simplifies JavaScript code, making it easier to read and correct. TypeScript offers highly creative development tools for JavaScript IDEs and performs, like static checking. TypeScript creates code easier to read and comprehend. Using TypeScript, we can create a huge development over basic JavaScript.

What do I need to learn to use TypeScript?

TypeScript is basically a JS linter. Or, JS with certification that the compiler can understand. Therefore, indifference to other languages comparable to CoffeeScript which enhances syntactic sugar, or else PureScript which does not look similar to JavaScript at all, you do not need to learn a ration to start writing TypeScript code. Kinds in TS are optional, and all JS file is an effective TypeScript file. But the compiler will protest if you have type mistakes in your first files, it does stretch you back to a JavaScript file that works as it did before. Anywhere you are, TypeScript will meet you there, and then it is informal to build up your skills progressively.

How to get started with TypeScript?

To compile your TS code, you need to install tsc short for the TypeScript compiler. The easiest way to do it is over the terminal. This can remain done simply through npm by using the following command:

If you want to use TypeScript with Visual Studio Code, there is a handy guide on their website.

Once you have installed tsc, you can compile your files with tsc filename.ts.

Migrating your files from JavaScript to TypeScript

Let’s say that we want to change the following JavaScript file to TypeScript due to odd behavior:

Good news. Any JS file is technically a valid TypeScript file, so you’re up to a great start – just switch the file extension to .ts from .js.

TypeScript has type inference, which means that it can automatically infer some of the types you use without you adding them. In this case, it presumes that the function sums two variables of type any, which is true but of no great use right now.

If we want to sum only numbers, we can add a type signature to my_sum to make it accept only numbers.

Now, TypeScript provides us with an error.

Good thing we found where the error is: To additional escape errors like these, you can also add kind definitions to variables.

TypeScript is quite flexible in what it can do and how it can help you.

Features of TypeScript:

To sum it up, I think TypeScript will remain to rise in popularity aimed at the predictable future. It offers great development knowledge, does not have much competition, and enjoys high acceptance rates among new open-source projects.

Object-Oriented Language: TypeScript offers a whole feature of an object-oriented programming language such as inheritance, classes, interfaces, modules, etc. In TypeScript, we can write code for both server-side as well as client-side development.

TypeScript supports JavaScript libraries: TypeScript supports all JavaScript elements. It permits the developers to use existing JavaScript code with TypeScript. Here, we can use each of the JavaScript frameworks, tools, and other libraries easily.

JavaScript is TypeScript: It means the code written in JavaScript with valid .js extension can be transformed to TypeScript through changing the extension from (.js to .ts) and compiled with other TypeScript files.

TypeScript is portable: TypeScript is portable because it can be executed on any device, browser, or operating system. It can be run in any environment where JavaScript runs on. It is not specific to any virtual machine for execution.

DOM Manipulation: TypeScript can be used to manipulate the DOM for removing or adding elements related to JavaScript.

TypeScript is just JS: TypeScript code is not executed on any browsers straight. The program written in TypeScript constantly starts with JavaScript then ends with JavaScript. Henceforth, we only need to know JavaScript to use it in TypeScript. The code written in TypeScript is compiled and transformed into its JavaScript comparable for the execution. This procedure is recognized as Trans-piled. With the support of JavaScript code, browsers can read the TypeScript code and show the output.

Advantage of TypeScript over JavaScript:

  • TypeScript continuously highlights errors at compilation time throughout the time of development, while JavaScript points out errors at the runtime.
  • TypeScript supports strongly typed or static typing, but this is not in JavaScript.
  • TypeScript runs on some browser or JavaScript engine.
  • Great tooling supports with IntelliSense, which offers active hints as the code is added.
  • It has a namespace concept through defining a module.

TypeScript Variables:

A variable is the storage location, which remains used to store worth info to be referenced and used by programs. It acts as a container for worth in code and must be professed earlier the use. We can declare a variable by using the var keyword. In TypeScript, the variable follows the same identification rule as of JavaScript variable declaration. These rules are –

  • The variable name must be an alphabet or numeric digit.
  • The variable name cannot start with digits.
  • The variable name cannot contain spaces and special personalities, but the underscore (_) and the dollar ($) sign.

In ES6, we can describe variables using the let and const keywords. These variables have similar syntax for variable declaration and initialization but differ in scope and usage. In TypeScript, there is continuously suggested to define a variable using the let keyword because it delivers the type protection.

The let keyword is similar to the var keyword in some respects, and const is a let that prevents re-assignment to a variable.

Collections in TypeScript:

TypeScript supports two kinds of collections:

arrays (where all the members are of the same type and are accessed by position)

tuples (where each member can be of a different type).

Control Statements in TypeScript:

1. If the statement

2. If else statement

3. If else if statement

If Statement

If the statement is used to execute a block of statements if the specified condition is true.


If else statement

If else statement is used to execute whichever of two blocks of statements depends upon the situation. If the situation is true and if the block will execute or else the block will execute.


If else if statement

If else statement is used to execute one block of statements from many depends upon the condition. If condition1 is true then the block of statements1 will be executed, else if condition2 is a true block of statements2 is executed, and so on. If no condition is true, and else block of statements will remain executed.


TypeScript Control Statements Example:

What is a TypeScript application?

Software, web development, programming concept. Abstract Programming language and program code on screen laptop. Laptop and icons company network. Technology process of Software development (Software, web development, programming concept. Abstract Pr

TypeScript is a programming language developed then maintained through Microsoft. It is a strict syntactical superset of JavaScript and adds elective static typing to the language. TypeScript might be used to develop JavaScript applications for both server-side and client-side execution as with Node. Js or Deno.

Scope of TypeScript:

Variable scopes in TypeScript: Here scope means the discernibility of variable. The scope describes that we can access the variable or not. TypeScript variables can be of the following scopes:

Local Scope: As the name stated, are professed within the block like methods, loops, etc. Local variables are available only within the construct where they are declared.

Global Scope: If the variable is professed outside the construct then we can access the variable anyplace. This is recognized as Global Scope.

Class Scope: If a variable is professed inside the class and we can access that variable within the class only.

What are the Objectives for TypeScript Training?

•             Comprehend TypeScript conceptions

•             Apply different techniques to visualize data using multiple graphs and dashboards

•             Tool TypeScript in the organization to monitor operative intelligence

•             Troubleshoot various application log issues using SPL (Search Processing Language)

•             Implement indexers, forwarders, deployment servers, and deployers in TypeScript.

What are the benefits of TypeScript Certification?

Certifications continuously play a critical role in any occupation. You might find some Pay-Per-Click Intermediate specialists who will tell you that certifications do not hold considerable value; this certification validates an individual’s capability to generate complex searches, reports, and dashboards with Pay-Per-Click Intermediate’s core software to become the most out of their data. A Pay-Per-Click Intermediate Core Certified Operator can search, use fields, use lookups, and make basic statistical bits of intelligence then dashboards in the Pay-Per-Click Intermediate Initiative or Pay-Per-Click Intermediate Cloud Platforms. This certification validates an individual’s capability to navigate then use the Pay-Per-Click Intermediate Software.

Agenda of TypeScript

TypeScript Course

Hello everybody, if you are thinking of learning TypeScript this year then looking for some exceptional resources like books, courses, and tutorials, then you have come to the right place. Now my last limited articles, I have shared several of the best Angular framework tutorials and courses, and today, I am going to share several of the best TypeScript online courses you can join to learn it through yourself. DevOpsSchool is one of the best institutes for certification.


Overall, TypeScript is a great tool to have in your toolset even if you do not use it to its full capability. It is informal to start small and grow slowly, learning and adding new features as you go. TypeScript is practical and welcoming to beginners, so there is no need to be afraid.

I hope this article will be useful in your TypeScript. If you want help or have some questions, be sure to ask them on our social media like Twitter or Facebook.

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An introduction to JavaScript Programming Language.

Do You Know?

  • HTML
  • CSS

When Your Start JavaScript then before should requiring knowledge of HTML & CSS. After that, you can use JavaScript.

What is JavaScript ?

JavaScript is the programming language of HTML and the Web. It makes web page dynamic. It is an interpreted programming language with object-oriented capabilities

JavaScript History

1995 by Brendan Eich (NetScape)
• Mocha
• LiveScript
• JavaScript
• ECMAScript


Where You use Javascript means editor

  • Notepad
  • Notepad ++
  • Any Text Editor

JavaScript and Java Same?

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What is python?

Python is a programing language that combines features of C and Java. Python is an object-oriented, with high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. It’s a high-level built in data structures, combined with dynamic typing and dynamic binding,  that makes it very attractive for fast Application Development, as well as for use as a scripting or glue language to connect existing components together.

Features of python

  • Easy to code
  • Free and open Source
  • Object-Oriented Languages
  • GUI Programming supports
  • High-level Language
  • Extensible Feature
  • Large Standard Library
  • Dynamically Typed Language

Why Should You Learn Python?

Nowadays, Python has become one of the fastest growing and most popular programming languages in the world. Is it a good choice for your next project though? Python is versatile, it is easy to use and develop.

Moreover, it has a very vibrant community. You can easily find support from the best minds in the field. It is well-loved among both experienced programmers and beginners alike. There are many reasons to learn Python. Some of the reason to learn Python are:

  • Versatile, easy to use and fast to develop
  • Open source with a vibrant community
  • It has all the library required
  • Great for prototype (You can do more with less Coding)
  • Fast Development speed
  • Easy maintenance
  • Not native to mobile environment
  • Learning Python will keep you relevant
  • Python is similar to English
  • Python is widely used

How Long Does it Take to Learn Python?

If you’re looking to become a Python expert you have a much longer path ahead of you. In this article, we’ll just look at how long it takes to get a basic, well-rounded understanding of the Python language.

On average, for beginners it takes about 10-12 hours to learn the basics. This will get you enough to understand most lines of code in Python. If you plan on getting into data science or another specialized field, counting in months and years is more appropriate. If you spend your 5 to 6 months to this language, then this matter of time suited those who pan full time work in this.

To learn, plan is simple you should have to spend 2-3 hours a day on computer and practise it on daily basis. One day learn something and next day practise it with fully.

You may need to sacrifice the time you spend watching Netflix, but it’s well worth it for a stellar new career!

Career Opportunities in Python

Python is not only one of the most popular programming languages across the globe, but it is one that offers the most promising career opportunities as well. This demand for Python developers is increasing every year. There is a reason why this high-level programming language is so popular.

Python can be used in several areas, including testing, web development, app development and upgrades, and scriptwriting. If you acquire this skill, you will have more Python career opportunities than you can imagine.

Python Career Opportunities

So what are the options in front of you when you complete your Python learning? Here are a few job roles that you can fill:

  • Python Developer

This type of jobs you can except after acquiring the skills of python, you have always open position for Python Developer.

What does a Python developer do? 

  1. Building website
  2. Resolve problems related to data analytics
  3. Write codes that are reusable and efficient
  4. Optimize data algorithms
  • Data analyst

This particular job option is mainly for those who like to working with huge amounts of data and finding meaning in that data. This also a popular job role in this domain. There are many companies that are looking for people who can work with the large sets of data that they have access to.

  • Product Manager

Product managers comes with an important role to play in this domain when it comes to helping businesses to understand the market and why building one product will be better than building another. Data is a very important part of the work they do. They study the market, research for new features related to a particular product or category, and advocate the building of certain products with facts. 

  • Machine learning engineer

Nowadays requirement off this particular job role is by 330% in the last couple of years.

A machine learning engineer builds and trains machines, programs, and other computer-based systems to apply their learned knowledge for making predictions.

Why Python skill is essential for every Software Engineer?

Python is a very popular open-source software development language that offers enhanced process control capabilities. It is able to develop complex multi-protocol network applications

  • The career opportunities for skilled professionals are increasing significantly with huge scope for career growth.
  • The average salary of a Certified Python Developer is US$116,379 per year.
  • There are more Job opportunities for Python professionals in top MNCs when compared to other technologies.
  • IT Operations, IT Monitoring, IT Support, & Data Centre teams.
  • Professionals who aim to make a career in big data with Python, Professionals having experience of Programming, Software Testing Professionals, Software developers.

Python Job and Salary

This is the vast and most desire welcome opportunity provide to a Python skilled candidates.

If you are able to strike a balance, you will not have to think too much about your salary after that. You will have the opportunity to work with the world’s most popular names, such as Amazon, Accenture, Cognizant, Tata Consultancy Services Limited, and others. Your career will continue to grow as you gain more experience.

On an averagea senior software developer earn as much as Rs 2,000,000 per annum. Other hand Web developer with Python skills can also earn in the range of Rs 8, 00,000 per annum. Other related job roles include lead software engineer (up to Rs 2,000,000 per annum), data scientist (Rs 7,00,000 per annum), machine learning engineer (Rs 6,70,000 per annum), data analyst (4,17,000 per annum), and more. 

The popularity of python increased among developers by the fact that Python is used by some of the biggest names in the world – Facebook, Netflix, Google, and Spotify, amongst others. This points towards one thing – As a professional skilled in python, you will have your chance of working with one of your dream companies. 

To make you this clear we shared you some that that According to, there were more than 75,000 open jobs for Python developers in India at the end of 2021. Similarly, the open jobs for Python web developers were around 7000 around the same time.


In this Article, we all discussed on point of a career in python. We provided you the enough information about the salaries what you can expect to earn in different job roles with Python skills We also discussed the options that you can choose as a skilled Python professional depending on your interests.

If you are curious to learn about Python, and make a good career with this skill then I would suggest you please check out more information.

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Introduction to Object Oriented Programming in PHP

OOPs stands for Object Oriented Programming which is all about creating class and objects. Class serves as a template and multiple objects can be created using the class.

Oops concept reduces code repetition. Classes are templates for creating objects.

For an example, if we see a game take it as a Racing game where we will be having multiple cars which will be running there. So in this case either we have to write codes for each car individually or else we can create a class for car and then we can use it multiple times for the other class with that class name.

A class is a self-contained, independent collection of variables and functions which work together to perform one or more specific tasks, while objects are individual instances of a class.

We can see an example given below:


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Interview Questions & Answer Sets : Shell Programming


Interview Questions Sets : Shell Programming

How do you find out what’s your shell?
Answer: echo $SHELL

What’s the command to find out today’s date?
Answer: date

 What’s the command to find out users on the system?
Answer: who

How do you find out the current directory you’re in?
Answer: pwd

How do you remove a file?
Answer: rm

How do you remove a file?
Answer: rm -rf

How do you find out your own username?
Answer: whoami

How do you send a mail message to somebody?
Answer: mail -s ‘Your subject’ -c ‘‘

How do you count words, lines and characters in a file?
Answer: wc

How do you search for a string inside a given file?
Answer: grep string filename

How do you search for a string inside a directory?
Answer: grep string *

How do you search for a string in a directory with the subdirectories recursed?
Answer: grep -r string *

What are PIDs?
Answer: They are process IDs given to processes. A PID can vary from 0 to 65535.

How do you list currently running process?
Answer: ps

How do you stop a process?
Answer: kill pid

How do you find out about all running processes?
Answer: ps -ag

How do you stop all the processes, except the shell window?
Answer: kill 0

How do you fire a process in the background?
Answer: ./process-name &

How do you refer to the arguments passed to a shell script?
Answer: $1, $2 and so on. $0 is your script name.

What’s the conditional statement in shell scripting?
Answer: if {condition} then … fi

How do you do number comparison in shell scripts?
Answer: -eq, -ne, -lt, -le, -gt, -ge

How do you test for file properties in shell scripts?
Answer: -s filename tells you if the file is not empty, -f filename tells you whether the argument is a file, and not a directory, -d filename tests if the argument is a directory, and not a file, -w filename tests for writeability, -r filename tests for readability, -x filename tests for executability

How do you do Boolean logic operators in shell scripting?
Answer: ! tests for logical not, -a tests for logical and, and -o tests for logical or.

How do you find out the number of arguments passed to the shell script?
Answer: $#

What’s a way to do multilevel if-else’s in shell scripting?
Answer: if {condition} then {statement} elif {condition} {statement} fi

How do you write a for loop in shell?
Answer: for {variable name} in {list} do {statement} done

How do you write a while loop in shell?
Answer: while {condition} do {statement} done

How does a case statement look in shell scripts?
Answer: case {variable} in {possible-value-1}) {statement};; {possible-value-2}) {statement};; esac

How do you read keyboard input in shell scripts?
Answer: read {variable-name}

How do you define a function in a shell script?
Answer: function-name() { #some code here return }

How does getopts command work?
Answer: The parameters to your script can be passed as -n 15 -x 20. Inside the script, you can iterate through the getopts array as while getopts n:x option, and the variable $option contains the value of the entered option.

What’s a way to do multilevel if-else’s in shell scripting?
Answer: if then elif fi

How do you write a for loop in shell?
Answer: for in do done

How do you write a while loop in shell?
Answer: while do done

How does a case statement look in shell scripts?
Answer: case in ) ;; ) ;; esac

How do you define a function in a shell script?
Answer: function-name()

How do you find out about all running processes?
Answer: ps -ag

How do you stop a process?
Answer: kill pid

How do you remove a file?
Answer: rm

How do you remove recursively?
Answer: rm -rf

What are PIDs?
Answer: They are process IDs given to processes. A PID can vary…

How do you list currently running process?
Answer: ps

What is $$?

What is a named pipe?

What does || mean?

What does && mean?

What is a loop?

What does while do?

What is a function?

What are the different kinds of loops available in shell script?
for if while case

What does $# stand for?

$# returns the number of parameters that are passed to a shell script
$? returns the exit code of the last executed command (0 : Successful, 1 or other: Failed)

What does $? return?
Will return the status of the command which is executed lastly.
0 > Success
2 > Error

How do u open a read only file in Unix?
“vi -R filename”

What is the difference between a shell variable that is exported and the one that is not exported?

If you have a string “one two three”, Which shell command would you use to extract the strings?

How do you schedule a command to run at 4:00 every morning?

How will you list only the empty lines in a file (using grep)?
grep ^$ filename.txt

When you login to a c shell, which script would be run first? (before the terminal is ready for the user)

first /etc/.login script is run & after that
~/.login is run & then ~/.cshrc is run.

How would you get the character positions 10-20 from a text file?
cat filename.txt | cut -c 10-20

How would you print just the 25th line in a file (smallest possible script please)?
tail -n +25Â | head -1 OR
head -n 25 | tail -1

How would you replace the n character in a file with some xyz?
sed ‘s/n/xyz/g’ filename > new_filename

Grep | SED |

How you will list the ordinary files in your current directory that are not user-writable?

Use Command substitution with grep to list the names of the persons from emp.lst who were born today.

How will you remove blank lines from a file using (i) grep  and (ii) sed?

Locate lines longer than 100 abd smaller than 150 characters using (i) grep  and (ii) sed?

How do you delete all leading and trailing spaces in all lines of a file?

Making Script Interactive
# read name
# echo “$name”

Special Parameters Used by Shell
# $* – It stores the complete set of positional parameters as a single string
# $? – Exit Status of last command
# $# – Number of arguments specified in command line
# $0 – Holds the command name itself
# $$ – PID of current Shell
# $! – PID of last the last Background job

Exit status of command
# exit 0 – Used when everything went fine
# exit 1 – Used when something went wrong

0 indicates the success and other values point to failure

The Logical Operator && and ||
cmd1 && cmd2 – cmd2 is excuted only when cmd1 succeeds.
cmd1 || cmd2 – cmd2 is excuted only when cmd1 Fails

Usage of –a and -o

The if Conditional
If command is successful
execute command
execute command

If command is successful
execute command

If command is successful
execute command
elif command is successful
execute command
execute command

Using test AND [ ] to evaluate expressions
# test $x –eq $y
# [$x –eq $y]

Numeric Comparison Operators used by test
# -eq – Equal to
# -ne – Not Equal to
# -gt – Greater than
# -ge – Greater than or equal to
# -ge – Less than
# -le – Less than or equal to

String Tests used by test

Test True if
s1=s2 String s1 = s2
s1 != s2 String s1 is not equal to s2
-n stg String stg is not a null string
-z stg String stg is a null string
stg String stg is assigned and not null
s1 == s2 String s1 =s2

File related Tests with test

Test True if
-f file file exists and is a regular file
-r file file exists and is a readable
-w file file exists and is a writeable
-x file file exists and is a executable
-d file file exists and is a dirctory
-s file file exists and has a size greate than ero
-e file file exists
-u file file exists and has  SUID bit set
-L file file exists and is a Symbolic link

read choice
case “$choice” in

  • ls –l ;;
  • ps –f ;;
  • date ;;
  • who ;;
  • exit ;;

*)   echo “Invalid options”

for variable in list

for file in *.htm *.html
sed ‘s/strong/STONG/g’ $file >> $$
mv $$ $file
gzip $file


while consition is true

basename – Changing Filename Extension
# basename /home/henry/project3/
# basename ux2nd.txt txt
# ux2nd.                              – txt stripped off

set  AND shift – Manupulating the Positional Parameters
# set 9876 2345 6213
# echo “\$1 is $1, \$2 is $2, \$3 is $3”
# $1 is 9876, $2 is 2346, $3 is 6213

# set `date`
# echo $*

Note- set parses its arguments on the delimiters specified in the environment variable IFS which by default is whitespace.

Shift – Shifting arguments left

Maximum number of Bash arguments
On a 32-bit Linux, this is ARGMAX/4-1 (32767). This becomes relevant if the average length of arguments is smaller than 4.
Linux 2.6.23, one argument must not be longer than MAX_ARG_STRLEN (131072).

How to find success/failure status of a command in different shells?
echo $?
List all the users in Linux
cat /etc/passwd | cut -d”:” -f1

How to change the permission of multiple files which has 655 to 755
for myfile in `find . -perm 655`
chmod 755 $myfile

Shell script to Print only Size and file name using unix command
ls -l | tr -s ” ” ” “| cut -d ” ” -f5,9

Shell script to read file line by line

How do you remove blank line using grep and sed in shell scripting?
# grep -v “^$” filename > newfilename
# sed ‘/^$/d’ /tmp/data.txt > /tmp/output.txt
# sed ‘/^[PRESS TAB]*$/d’ filename

List all the Groups and users in linux
# less /etc/passwd
# less /etc/group

How Do I Find Out CPU is 32bit or 64bit?

# grep flags /proc/cpuinfo
# uname

How to gunzip and untar all at once!
gunzip myfile.tar.gz
tar -xvf myfile.tar
into one
tar -zxvf myfile.tar.gz

Another way to kill multiple processes easily is by adding the following two functions to the .bash_profile.
function psgrep ()
ps aux | grep “$1” | grep -v ‘grep’

function psterm ()
[ ${#} -eq 0 ] && echo “usage: $FUNCNAME STRING” && return 0
local pid
pid=$(ps ax | grep “$1” | grep -v grep | awk ‘{ print $1 }’)
echo -e “terminating ‘$1’ / process(es):\n$pid”
kill -SIGTERM $pid

  # psgrep http

apache   31186       0.0        1.6  23736 17556 ?        S          Jul26       0:40  /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd
apache   31187       0.0        1.3  20640 14444 ?        S          Jul26       0:37  /usr/local/apache2/bin/httpd

# psterm httpd

terminating 'httpd' / process(es):

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