What is an Android App Developer?

Hi guys, you must have seen many types of software developers and other web developers but today we will discuss about the Android App Developers, like what is an Android App Developer, its roles and responsibilities, its benefits and its skills.

An Android Developer is also a Software Developer who concentrates in making applications for the Android Square. The Android Square is the straight contestant to Android App store. This means that the most of an Android Developer’s work moves around for making the apps we use on our smartphones and tablets and PC. The Android Developers can also work internal for a large group, or they can be working by an App Development activity.

The role of Android Developer is an accomplished, the entry position. The Employers are regularly requires a bachelor’s degree in software development or an associated turf, but they are characteristically and they do not need work knowledge as an Android Developer. The next step on the vocation hierarchy would be a High-ranking Android Developer, which involves in taking on management and mentorship responsibilities. Conferring to the Bureau of Labour Statistics, the demand for Software Developers, in which comprises Android Developers, is predictable to grow a huge 17 percent through 2024.

Roles and responsibilities of an Android App Developer:-

There are a huge diversity of careful tasks that an Android Developer performs in instruction to develop Android requests. The following are the responsibilities we came across most in our examination of Android Developer job metaphors.

Design and Build Advanced Applications for the Android Platform:

This is the responsibilities where an Android Developer offers most of their time. This includes using C / C++, JavaScript and many other tools to carve program code. This work necessitates as a dangerous care to detail, as one mistake line of code can reduce the whole program impracticable.

Collaborate with Cross-Functional Teams to Define, Design and Ship New Features:

An Android Developer the whole thing with Product Growth, Operator Data and some other sections to define and design new topographies users essentially want to do this. As this feature of the work needs the aptitude to be in a team.

Troubleshoot and Fix Bugs in New and Existing Applications:

An Android Developer’s responsibilities is not completed and once an application is ended, then they are also answerable for troubleshooting wiretaps that grows when the app is transported to users. The Android Developers must be talented to systematically test likely subjects and be able to rapidly develop a software cover to solve the difficult.

Continuously Discover, Evaluate and Implement New Development Tools:

The Android Developers will have to break the present on the newest drifts in mobile application uses. They will have to assess the new tools as they hit the souk and number out whore ether they redraft and implementing. This needs the skill to adjust to a change in the environment.

To Work with external Data Sources and the APIsAn Android developer applies a reasonable amount of time working with outside data sources and APIs. The Dangerous thought is important here in order to apply this data to their precise project.

Skills of an Android Developer:-

The part of Android Developer is extremely practical. They have to be capable in coding and programming languages because to write the apps we want to use. This needs complicated knowledge of C/C++ and JavaScript. The Android Developers also have to be rather fashionable when it comes to technology. In command to make one of the best apps, an Android App Developer must stay up-to-date of the latest mobile trends. In adding to these practical services, an Android App Developer should have a team spirit who can work with numerous subdivisions in the mission to make the best Android app conceivable. We maltreated several Android Developer occupation images in our mission to put composed the next list of core services you will need to develop an Android Developer.

Core skills:-

If you want to start your carrier to become an Android App Developer. Here are the essential skills you should start operating on.

  • The Skill in C / C++.
  • The Skill in JavaScript.
  • The Skill in MYSQL Databases.
  • The High courtesy to detail.
  • The Logical skills.
  • The Aptitude to succeed in a collaborative environment.
  • The Skill in Android Studio.
  • The Multifaceted problem solving skills.

Advanced skills:-

If you are observing to actually improvement a benefit in the career hub, then you should start working on these progressive skills many bosses prefer in their Android Developers to possess.

  • The Flexible and adaptable work style.
  • The Ability to take ownership of one’s work.
  • The Accountability / ability to take constructive criticism

Tools and trades:-

The Android App Developers use many different types of tools to comprehensive their responsibilities and duties. In order to become an Android App Developer, you will have to be capable in the following.

  • The Development Environment software, such as Adobe ActionScript.
  • The Object or Component oriented software, such as C# / C++.
  • The Program testing software, such as IBM Rational PurifyPlus.
  • The Database management software, such as Apache Flume.

Conclusion:-

In this context we have discussed all about an Android App Developer and also about its assets.  The Android App Developer is also a Software Developer who distillates in devious applications for the Android hub.

Thank You!

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How to Become a Blockchain Developer?

Blockchain development is one of the fastest growing areas. Companies are looking for blockchain developers to implement new ones, upgrade their existing systems, and move forward in the industry. Technology is always evolving, and if you want to make a career for the future, is the way to go Blockchain.

What is Blockchain Developer?

Blockchain developer skills are a combination of hard skills and soft skills from an abstract point of view. They can handle the entire life cycle of a blockchain application. This means that you will be responsible for the execution of the application as well as research.

Types of Blockchain Developers:

There are two types of Blockchain Developer.

  • Blockchain software developer
  • Core blockchain developer

They are both involved in blockchain development, but they have different responsibilities.

Blockchain Software Developer

Blokchain software developers to create applications based on Blokchain architectures and protocols. Their apps also run on the blockchain. You can compare them to web developers, who use the products of a web architect (protocol and design) to develop web applications.

Blockchain software developers create dapps or decentralized applications. They are responsible for the back-end development as well as front-end of Daps. They also monitor the stack running the dapps.

Core Blockchain Developer

These developers focus on the architecture development of blockchain systems. They design their own consensus protocol and make most of the important decisions related to the blockchain. They monitor the network and design the architecture of the same. Core blockchain developers are also responsible for the security of their blockchain network.

Role and Responsibilities of Blockchain Developer:

  • Research, design, develop, and test blockchain technologies.
  • Brainstorm and help evaluate applications for new tools and technologies as they continually evolve.
  • Maintain and extend current client- and server-side applications responsible for integration and business logic.
  • Collaborating with managers to determine blockchain technology needs and envisaged functionalities.
  • Maintaining client and server-side applications.
  • Optimizing and securing blockchain applications by integrating new tools and technologies.
  • Taking into account the current blockchain technologies and cryptography methods.

Blockchain Developer Skills:

Blockchain developers have many responsibilities. To handle those responsibilities well, they must possess certain skills as well.

Cryptography:

Cryptography is the study of protocols that prevent unwanted parties from accessing your data. There are several essential concepts in cryptography that you should be familiar with as you will need them during blockchain development.

Data Structures:

To become a blockchain developer you need to have extensive knowledge of data structures. This is because blockchain developers regularly work with different data structures as they need to build and implement networks.

Blockchain Architecture:

To become a blockchain developer, you must be familiar with blockchain architecture. You should know what a ledger means in a blockchain, what is consensus, and how smart contracts work.

Web Development:

As a blockchain developer, you will be developing web apps in most cases. Learning web development will you familiar with all its aspects, and you can create robust web apps that use Blokchain technology using this knowledge.

Java:

Java is popular among blockchain developers due to its many properties. It is easy to learn, but it is capable of developing many complex solutions.

C++:

C++ is a popular language among blockchain developers. You can do a lot of things related to blockchain with its help. The creators used C++ to create Bitcoin Core, so it’s definitely a must-see for any aspiring blockchain developer.

Python:

Python is one of the most popular programming languages on the planet. It is versatile, and its various libraries enable you to use it for both front-end as well as back-end development. So you should also familiar yourself with Python.

You can learn JavaScript, Ruby, and C# in addition to the languages mentioned above. The ability to learn and work with multiple languages is one of the important blockchain developer skills.

What Blockchain Developer do?

Blockchain software developers build applications based on the blockchain architecture and protocol. Blockchain software developers create dapps or decentralized applications. They are responsible for the front-end as well as back-end development of Dapps. They also monitor the stack running the dapps.

Blockchain developers enable secure digital transactions by the system to record and store Blockchain data which prevents changes or hack.

  • They design secure blockchain technologies.
  • Develop application features and interfaces.
  • Maintain client and server-side applications.

At present, Blockchain is considered one of the most revolutionary technologies as it transforms the way we interact, transact, and share information. Many technocrats and Blockchain Experts also believe that it is going to be the most disruptive technology in the next decade.

Today, this technology is not only used by tech giants, enterprises, federal agencies, and even startups have started adopting Blockchain. In fact, they are looking for Certified Blockchain Experts and are considering certified professionals over the non-credential peers.

Thank you!!

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What is python?

Python is a programing language that combines features of C and Java. Python is an object-oriented, with high-level programming language with dynamic semantics. It’s a high-level built in data structures, combined with dynamic typing and dynamic binding,  that makes it very attractive for fast Application Development, as well as for use as a scripting or glue language to connect existing components together.

Features of python

  • Easy to code
  • Free and open Source
  • Object-Oriented Languages
  • GUI Programming supports
  • High-level Language
  • Extensible Feature
  • Large Standard Library
  • Dynamically Typed Language

Why Should You Learn Python?

Nowadays, Python has become one of the fastest growing and most popular programming languages in the world. Is it a good choice for your next project though? Python is versatile, it is easy to use and develop.

Moreover, it has a very vibrant community. You can easily find support from the best minds in the field. It is well-loved among both experienced programmers and beginners alike. There are many reasons to learn Python. Some of the reason to learn Python are:

  • Versatile, easy to use and fast to develop
  • Open source with a vibrant community
  • It has all the library required
  • Great for prototype (You can do more with less Coding)
  • Fast Development speed
  • Easy maintenance
  • Not native to mobile environment
  • Learning Python will keep you relevant
  • Python is similar to English
  • Python is widely used

How Long Does it Take to Learn Python?

If you’re looking to become a Python expert you have a much longer path ahead of you. In this article, we’ll just look at how long it takes to get a basic, well-rounded understanding of the Python language.

On average, for beginners it takes about 10-12 hours to learn the basics. This will get you enough to understand most lines of code in Python. If you plan on getting into data science or another specialized field, counting in months and years is more appropriate. If you spend your 5 to 6 months to this language, then this matter of time suited those who pan full time work in this.

To learn, plan is simple you should have to spend 2-3 hours a day on computer and practise it on daily basis. One day learn something and next day practise it with fully.

You may need to sacrifice the time you spend watching Netflix, but it’s well worth it for a stellar new career!

Career Opportunities in Python

Python is not only one of the most popular programming languages across the globe, but it is one that offers the most promising career opportunities as well. This demand for Python developers is increasing every year. There is a reason why this high-level programming language is so popular.

Python can be used in several areas, including testing, web development, app development and upgrades, and scriptwriting. If you acquire this skill, you will have more Python career opportunities than you can imagine.

Python Career Opportunities

So what are the options in front of you when you complete your Python learning? Here are a few job roles that you can fill:

  • Python Developer

This type of jobs you can except after acquiring the skills of python, you have always open position for Python Developer.

What does a Python developer do? 

  1. Building website
  2. Resolve problems related to data analytics
  3. Write codes that are reusable and efficient
  4. Optimize data algorithms
  • Data analyst

This particular job option is mainly for those who like to working with huge amounts of data and finding meaning in that data. This also a popular job role in this domain. There are many companies that are looking for people who can work with the large sets of data that they have access to.

  • Product Manager

Product managers comes with an important role to play in this domain when it comes to helping businesses to understand the market and why building one product will be better than building another. Data is a very important part of the work they do. They study the market, research for new features related to a particular product or category, and advocate the building of certain products with facts. 

  • Machine learning engineer

Nowadays requirement off this particular job role is by 330% in the last couple of years.

A machine learning engineer builds and trains machines, programs, and other computer-based systems to apply their learned knowledge for making predictions.

Why Python skill is essential for every Software Engineer?

Python is a very popular open-source software development language that offers enhanced process control capabilities. It is able to develop complex multi-protocol network applications

  • The career opportunities for skilled professionals are increasing significantly with huge scope for career growth.
  • The average salary of a Certified Python Developer is US$116,379 per year.
  • There are more Job opportunities for Python professionals in top MNCs when compared to other technologies.
  • IT Operations, IT Monitoring, IT Support, & Data Centre teams.
  • Professionals who aim to make a career in big data with Python, Professionals having experience of Programming, Software Testing Professionals, Software developers.

Python Job and Salary

This is the vast and most desire welcome opportunity provide to a Python skilled candidates.

If you are able to strike a balance, you will not have to think too much about your salary after that. You will have the opportunity to work with the world’s most popular names, such as Amazon, Accenture, Cognizant, Tata Consultancy Services Limited, and others. Your career will continue to grow as you gain more experience.

On an averagea senior software developer earn as much as Rs 2,000,000 per annum. Other hand Web developer with Python skills can also earn in the range of Rs 8, 00,000 per annum. Other related job roles include lead software engineer (up to Rs 2,000,000 per annum), data scientist (Rs 7,00,000 per annum), machine learning engineer (Rs 6,70,000 per annum), data analyst (4,17,000 per annum), and more. 

The popularity of python increased among developers by the fact that Python is used by some of the biggest names in the world – Facebook, Netflix, Google, and Spotify, amongst others. This points towards one thing – As a professional skilled in python, you will have your chance of working with one of your dream companies. 

To make you this clear we shared you some that that According to Naukri.com, there were more than 75,000 open jobs for Python developers in India at the end of 2021. Similarly, the open jobs for Python web developers were around 7000 around the same time.

Conclusion

In this Article, we all discussed on point of a career in python. We provided you the enough information about the salaries what you can expect to earn in different job roles with Python skills We also discussed the options that you can choose as a skilled Python professional depending on your interests.

If you are curious to learn about Python, and make a good career with this skill then I would suggest you please check out DevOpsSchool.com more information.

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Why DevOps skill is very important to have?

why-devops-skill-is-very-important-to-have
In the event that association has worked with a spry web advancement philosophy, then they are accustomed to seeing the advantages of composed cooperation, speedier turnarounds, and checkpoints and changes through the web programming improvement life-cycle. Along these lines of working can help your group make the move to DevOps, which dwells at the convergence of advancement and operations and exists to enhance the product conveyance chain, as well as the association’s general execution. A fundamental guideline of DevOps is to empower the advancement and operations groups to cooperate to see each other’s procedures and remarkable difficulties so they can discharge code speedier and be better arranged to react to changing business necessities. Much like deft, DevOps adopts a comprehensive strategy to programming improvement and prevails by changing the attitude of the staff and the way things are generally done. DevOps depends intensely on the human variable, so moving the corporate culture won’t occur without any forethought. Change needs to originate from the top, yet beginning from a positive place of “yes” will put you progressing nicely.
The effect that DevOps has on an association is quantifiable and receiving DevOps precepts, for example, code proprietorship, nonstop change, and robotization has gotten to be de rigueur for some corporate mammoths. Organizations including Facebook, Target, and Adobe have all gotten to be adherents as has Amazon which embraced a “You construct it, you possess it” culture where designers of an administration are in charge of its operations all through the lifecycle. Insights illustrate the DevOps development as found in Manikin’s Condition of DevOps reports. These yearly reports point see how organizations that actualize DevOps hones (i.e., high-performing associations) charge with issues, for example, sending, representative dedication, revise, and security. The noteworthy outcomes for 2016 are beneath.
           1. High-performing associations are definitively beating their lower-performing peers as far as throughput. Superior workers convey 200 circumstances more as often as possible than low entertainers, with 2,555                              circumstances speedier lead times. They likewise keep on significantly beat low entertainers, with 24 times quicker recuperation times and three circumstances bring down change disappointment rates.
           2. Superior workers have better representative faithfulness, as measured by representative Net Promoter Score (eNPS). Representatives in high-performing associations were 2.2 circumstances more inclined to prescribe                    their association to a companion as an extraordinary work environment, and 1.8 circumstances more inclined to prescribe their group to a companion as an awesome workplace. Different reviews have demonstrated                    this is corresponded with better business results.
           3. High-performing associations invest 22 percent less energy in spontaneous work and improve. Thus, they can invest 29 percent more energy in new work, for example, new components or code. They can do this since                they incorporate quality with every phase of the advancement procedure using nonstop conveyance hones, rather than retrofitting quality toward the end of an improvement cycle.
           4. Superior workers invest 50 percent less energy remediating security issues than low entertainers. By better incorporating data security targets into day by day work, groups accomplish larger amounts of IT execution                    and fabricate more secure frameworks.
Beginning a DevOps culture starts by building up a long haul arrange for that frameworks how you might want your web group to work in 12-year and a half. This is an ideal opportunity to investigate your arrangement, survey your procedures, and distinguish where you are seeing danger. Ask yourself and your group, “What is creating the procedure to be wasteful?” and “What are the run of the mill issues that ceaselessly emerge?” Give your group a voice and approach them for recommendations in the matter of how they think the procedure can be sensibly moved forward. What do they think about putting operations individuals on improvement ventures? Is there anybody on the group who would learn new aptitudes and work as the DevOps architect to conquer any hindrance amongst operations and improvement? Shouldn’t something be said about welcoming the operations group to commence gatherings? Gathering this data may require a couple shut entryway sessions with your staff, however in any event you will motivate them to discuss the procedure and consider arrangements. Once your arrangement has been actualized, impart it to different divisions. The excellence of a DevOps culture is that its foundations in venture possession and cross-practical groups can be actualized all through your association for expanded productivity and better results
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How DevOps is enhancing the capability of software development?

devops-is-enhancing-the-capability-of-software-development
We all know that DevOps is an established relationship stage between development phase and IT Operations. It is vital that collaboration and communication between the two units are promoted from the viewpoint of productivity and management.
DevOps from an IT point of view
DevOps is basically a culture of management that improves the delivery agility of IT service on the basis of collaboration, communication and integration. It is a platform that recognise the relationships between multiple themes, ideas and tools of IT operations and software development by using continuous improvement. In a wider sense, DevOps represents a cultural change towards acknowledging the Agile software development norms, making way for continuous cycles of development, considering the responsibilities, goals and cross functions of IT operations.
Integration of DevOps in the software development process offers the following benefits:
Improved resource management: During the software development and integration stage, testers and developers wait for resources to arrive resulting in delays in the delivery. Agile with DevOps makes sure that the mobile app development lands in testing phase way quicker than the existing operations.
Faster mitigation of the software defects: With enhanced collaboration and communication between software development and operations, you can easily recognize and mitigate defects at any stage of the software development cycle. A similar culture can be applied to app development where defects result in bigger losses.
Improved version control: By highlighting the interactions and individuals, DevOps permits the developers to influence the programmable dynamic infrastructure at various stages of the lifecycle of application development. It permits automated coding options and version control.
Diminished human errors: DevOps diminishes the odds of human errors during the process of development and operations by doing frequent iterations. The failure rate of application is lowered with numerous deployments in the process in a definite timeline.
Steady environment for operating: The solution to any business platform is stability and DevOps is established to bring in reliability and stability. Enterprises with DevOps get their deployment 30X faster than their competitors with approx. 50% lesser failure chances.
By utilizing DevOps, you can move from the ideation phase to final software version without any delay in spite of possessing numerous incremental improvements concerned with sales, stability and performance in the long run. Are you looking for DevOps consulting services? We’re here to assist you with the best of solutions.
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How DevOps course is enhancing the capability of software development?

devops-course-is-enhancing-the-capability-of-software-development
How DevOps course is enhancing the capability of software development?
Software Industry in these days adopting a new practice called “DevOps”. This word change the process of software development in a very short time. That is why the demand of DevOps engineers and professionals are high in these days but to become a good DevOps engineer you need good courses and trainers which is a real challenge to find. This challenge has been solved by devopsschool.com
But before getting in lets first understand what is DevOps? DevOps is actually a process which integrates developers and IT operation units to improve collaboration and productivity by automation, measurements and sharing. The implementation of DevOps is not only beneficial for developers and operations, but it also has a positive effect on the web service development and quality assurance performance. The main purpose of DevOps is to give fast deployment of features into production and to find and correct the issue when they appear, without disrupting other services. If we look deeply how DevOps skills enhance the software lifecycle than we can find that:-
1. If we hire people with both development and operations skills which we can find in a DevOps guy, it will create a culture that nurtures collaboration.
2. DevOps skills looks beyond the line of departments and units, which brings positive change in the whole environment.
3. DevOps skills give you an overview of the development pipeline, which is helpful for business, developers and operations.
4. By implementing continuous delivery, DevOps helps to release product on demand.
5. DevOps skills give you automation by the uses of tools.
6. By having communication between the Developers and operations teams it will improve understanding.
7. By use of cloud services in development cycle it will simplify the infrastructure of the network.
8. By making administrations as adaptation control available for both Dev and Ops.
9. By recommending changes to your plan of action as required.
10. By including QA amid the move procedure.
11. By making QA a partner when considering reporting.
12. By utilizing Real time User Monitoring to distinguish issues early.
13. By setting up a unified framework amid the move to DevOps.
14. By considering contributions from both Dev and Ops groups similarly.
15. By recommending utilization of models, for example, CMMI and ITIL.
16. By executing built up big business procedures, for example, Disciplined Agile Delivery.
If you are a software student or work in IT or in a software industry, whether as a programmer, developer, systems analyst, engineer, database admin or security expert, at some point you will need to know about DevOps and It’s implementation. It’s a mindset which is very necessary for todays software industry. So it’s very important to enhance the DevOps skills by taking good DevOps courses and a good place to start would be scmGalaxy.com.
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How to Use SVN Tasks with ANT ?

svn-tasks-with-ant

This post is about using ANT to perform some of the most common source-control related tasks such as export, tagging, and branching. I am using ANT version 1.7.0 and SVN Ant version 1.1-rc3, bound against Subversion 1.4.0.

The related software can be downloaded here:
1.    SVN Ant = http://subclipse.tigris.org/svnant.html
2.    ANT = http://ant.apache.org/
I shall start with build.properties, which lists a few key/value pairs used in our SVN Ant task build file, referred as svn-tasks.xml:

Content of build.properties:
####START of SVN Properties ####
svn.repository.url=http://xyz.com/repos/somereponame
svn.project.base.path=someprojectname
svn.username=user name to access repo
svn.password=password to access repo
#This shall be name of the tag,
#This property should always be updated before build starts
#This property shall be used to export
tag.name=SOME_TAG_NAME_12222008
#This shall be name of new branch,
#this property should be used only when new branch is to be created
new.branch.name=NEW_BRANCH_12222008
####END of SVN Properties ####
Content of svn-tasks.xml:
<property file=”build.properties”></property>

<!– SVN and SVN-ANT Tasks properties –>
<property name=”svn.repository.url” value=”${svn.repository.url}”/>
<property name=”svn.project.base.path” value=”${svn.project.base.path}” />
<property name=”svn.base.url” value=”${svn.repository.url}/${svn.project.base.path}”/>
<property name=”svnant.lib.dir” location=”svn-ant-lib”/>
<property name=”svnant.javahl” value=”false” />
<property name=”svnant.svnkit” value=”true” />
<!– SVN and SVN-ANT Tasks properties –>

<!– *************************************************************** –>
<!–   Set-Up of SVN-ANT classpath                                   –>
<!– *************************************************************** –>
<path id=”svnant.classpath”>
<fileset dir=”${svnant.lib.dir}”>
<include name=”**/*.jar” />
</fileset>
</path>

<!– *************************************************************** –>
<!–   Loading of SVN task                                           –>
<!– *************************************************************** –>
<typedef resource=”org/tigris/subversion/svnant/svnantlib.xml” classpathref=”svnant.classpath” />

<!– *************************************************************** –>
<!– tool-availability: Determine if SVN-ANT is available.           –>
<!– *************************************************************** –>
<target name=”tool-availability”>
<available resource=”org/tigris/subversion/svnant/svnantlib.xml”
classpathref=”svnant.classpath”
property=”available.svnant”
/>
<echo message=”SVN-ANT is available = ${available.svnant}”/>
</target>

<!– **************************************************************** –>
<!– does-svnant-exist: depends on tool-availablility and     –>
<!–                    displays error message                                   –>
<!– ***************************************************************** –>
<target name=”does-svnant-exist” depends=”tool-availability”>
<fail unless=”available.svnant”>
SVN-ANT is not available, cannot perform tagging or checkout/export svn ant task.
</fail>
</target>

<!– ****************************************************************** –>
<!– svntag: performs tagging using properties from                              –>
<!–         build.properties and uses SVNANT tasks                              –>
<!– ******************************************************************* –>
<target name=”svntag” description=”tags individual project using svnant task”>
<property name=”svn.tag.message” value=”Tagging Project ${project.name} with tag name ${tag.name} from trunk “/>
<property name=”src.url”  value=”${svn.base.url}/${project.name}/trunk/”/>
<property name=”dest.url” value=”${svn.base.url}/${project.name}/tags/${tag.name}”/>

<echo message=”${svn.tag.message}”/>
<echo message=”${src.url}”/>
<echo message=”${dest.url}”/>

<svn javahl=”${svnant.javahl}” svnkit=”${svnant.svnkit}” username=”${svn.username}” password=”${svn.password}”>
<copy srcUrl=”${src.url}” destUrl=”${dest.url}” message=”${svn.tag.message}”/>
</svn>
</target>

<!– ****************************************************************** –>
<!– svnexport: performs export using properties from                            –>
<!–            build.properties and uses SVNANT tasks                           –>
<!– ****************************************************************** –>
<target name=”svnexport” description=”exports individual project using svnant task”>
<property name=”svn.tag.message” value=”Exporting Project ${project.name} with tag name ${tag.name}”/>
<property name=”src.url”  value=”${svn.base.url}/${project.name}/tags/${tag.name}”/>
<property name=”destPath” value=”${dest.path}”/>
<echo message=”${svn.tag.message}”/>
<svn javahl=”${svnant.javahl}” svnkit=”${svnant.svnkit}” username=”${svn.username}” password=”${svn.password}”>
<export srcUrl=”${src.url}” destPath=”${destPath}/${project.name}”/>
</svn>
</target>

<!– ****************************************************************** –>
<!– svnbranch: creates a new branch using properties from                       –>
<!–            build.properties and uses SVNANT tasks                           –>
<!– ****************************************************************** –>
<target name=”svnbranch” description=”creates a new branch for individual project using svnant task”>

<property name=”svn.branch.message” value=”Creating new branch for
Project ${project.name} with new branch name ${new.branch.name} from
trunk”/>
<property name=”src.url”  value=”${svn.base.url}/${project.name}/trunk/”/>
<property name=”dest.url” value=”${svn.base.url}/${project.name}/branches/${new.branch.name}”/>

<echo message=”${svn.branch.message}”/>
<echo message=”${src.url}”/>
<echo message=”${dest.url}”/>

<svn javahl=”${svnant.javahl}” svnkit=”${svnant.svnkit}”
username=”${svn.username}” password=”${svn.password}”>
<copy srcUrl=”${src.url}” destUrl=”${dest.url}” message=”${svn.branch.message}”/>
</svn>
</target>

Link: http://java.dzone.com/articles/how-use-svn-tasks-with-ant

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Best Practices in Software Configuration Management – SCM Best Practices Guide

scm-best-practices

Best Practices in Software Configuration Management

Abstract
When deploying new SCM (software configuration management) tools,
implementers sometimes focus on perfecting fine-grained activities, while
unwittingly carrying forward poor, large-scale practices from their previous jobs or
previous tools. The result is a well-executed blunder. This paper promotes some
high-level best practices that reflect the authors’ experiences in deploying SCM.

1. Introduction
“A tool is only as good as you use it,” the saying goes. As providers of software configuration management (SCM) tools and consultants to software companies, we
are often asked for sound advice on SCM best practices – that is, how to deploy SCM software to the maximum advantage. In answering these requests we have a bounty of direct and indirect SCM experience from which to draw. The direct experience comes from having been developers and codeline managers ourselves; the indirect experience comes from customer reports of successes and failures with our product (Perforce) and other SCM tools.
The table below lists six general areas of SCM deployment, and some coarse-grained best practices within each of those areas. The following chapters explain each item.

Workspaces, where
developers build, test, and
debug.
· Don’t share workspaces.
· Don’t work outside of managed workspaces.
· Don’t use jello views.
· Stay in sync with the codeline.
· Check in often.
Codelines, the canonical sets
of source files.
· Give each codeline a policy.
· Give each codeline an owner.
· Have a mainline.
Branches, variants of the
codeline.
· Branch only when necessary.
· Don’t copy when you mean to branch.
· Branch on incompatible policy.
· Branch late.
· Branch, instead of freeze.
Change propagation, getting
changes from one codeline to
another.
· Make original changes in the branch that has
evolved the least since branching.
· Propagate early and often.
· Get the right person to do the merge.
Builds, turning source files
into products.
· Source + tools = product.
· Check in all original source.
· Segregate built objects from original source.
· Use common build tools.
· Build often.
· Keep build logs and build output.
Process, the rules for all of
the above.
· Track change packages.
· Track change package propagations.
· Distinguish change requests from change
packages.
· Give everything and owner.
· Use living documents.

2. The Workspace
The workspace is where engineers edit source files, build the software components they’re working on, and test and debug what they’ve built. Most SCM systems have some notion of a workspace; sometimes they are called “sandboxes”, as in Source Integrity, or “views”, as in ClearCase and Perforce. Changes to managed SCM repository files begin as changes to files in a workspace. The best practices for workspaces include:· Don’t share workspaces. A workspace should have a single purpose, such as an edit/build/test area for a single developer, or a build/test/release area for a product release. Sharing workspaces confuses people, just as sharing a desk does. Furthermore, sharing workspaces compromises the SCM system’s ability to track activity by user or task. Workspaces and the disk space they occupy are cheap; don’t waste time trying to conserve them.· Don’t work outside of managed workspaces. Your SCM system can only track work in progress when it takes place within managed workspaces. Users working outside of workspaces are beached; there’s a river of information flowing past and they’re not part of it. For instance, SCM systems generally use workspaces to facilitate some of the communication among developers working on related tasks. You can see what is happening in others’ workspaces, and they can see what’s going on in yours. If you need to take an emergency vacation, your properly managed workspace may be all you can leave behind. Use proper workspaces.
· Don’t use jello views. A file in your workspace should not change unless youexplicitly cause the change. A “jello view” is a workspace where file changes are
caused by external events beyond your control. A typical example of a jello view is a workspace built upon a tree of symbolic links to files in another workspace –
when the underlying files are updated, your workspace files change. Jello views are a source of chaos in software development. Debug symbols in executables
don’t match the source files, mysterious recompilations occur in supposedly trivial rebuilds, and debugging cycles never converge – these are just some of the
problems. Keep your workspaces firm and stable by setting them up so that users have control over when their files change.· Stay in sync with the codeline. As a developer, the quality of your work depends on how well it meshes with other peoples’ work. In other words, as changes are checked into the codeline, you should update your workspace and integrate those changes with yours. As an SCM engineer, it behooves you to make sure this workspace update operation is straightforward and unencumbered with tricky or time-consuming procedures. If developers find it fairly painless to update their workspaces, they’ll do it more frequently and integration problems won’t pile up at project deadlines.
· Check in often. Integrating your development work with other peoples’ work also requires you to check in your changes as soon as they are ready. Once you’ve
finished a development task, check in your changed files so that your work is available to others. Again, as the SCM engineer, you should set up procedures that encourage frequent check-ins. Don’t implement unduly arduous validation procedures, and don’t freeze codelines (see Branching, below). Short freezes are bearable, but long freezes compromise productivity. Much productivity can be wasted waiting for the right day (or week, or month) to submit changes.

3. The Codeline
In this context, the codeline is the canonical set of source files required to produce your software. Typically codelines are branched, and the branches evolve into variant
codelines embodying different releases. The best practices with regard to codelines are:
· Give each codeline a policy. A codeline policy specifies the fair use and permissible check-ins for the codeline, and is the essential user’s manual for
codeline SCM. For example, the policy of a development codeline should state that it isn’t for release; likewise, the policy of a release codeline should limit
changes to approved bug fixes.1 The policy can also describe how to document changes being checked in, what review is needed, what testing is required, and
the expectations of codeline stability after check-ins. A policy is a critical component for a documented, enforceable software development process, and a
codeline without a policy, from an SCM point of view, is out of control.· Give each codeline an owner. Having defined a policy for a codeline, you’ll soon
encounter special cases where the policy is inapplicable or ambiguous. Developers facing these ambiguities will turn to the person in charge of the
codeline for workarounds. When no one is in charge, developers tend to enact their own workarounds without documenting them. Or they simply procrastinate
because they don’t have enough information about the codeline to come up with a reasonable workaround. You can avoid this morass by appointing someone to
own the codeline, and to shepherd it through its useful life. With this broader objective, the codeline owner can smooth the ride over rough spots in software
development by advising developers on policy exceptions and documenting them.

· Have a mainline. A “mainline,” or “trunk,” is the branch of a codeline that evolves forever. A mainline provides an ultimate destination for almost all
changes – both maintenance fixes and new features – and represents the primary, linear evolution of a software product. Release codelines and development
codelines are branched from the mainline, and work that occurs in branches is propagated back to the mainline.

IMAGE  – 1

Figure 1 shows a mainline (called “main”), from which several release lines (“ver1”, “ver2” and “ver3”) and feature development lines (“projA”, “projb”, and
“projC”) have been branched. Developers work in the mainline or in a feature development line. The release lines are reserved for testing and critical fixes, and
are insulated from the hubbub of development. Eventually all changes submitted to the release lines and the feature development lines get merged into the
mainline. The adverse approach is to “promote” codelines; for example, to promote a development codeline to a release codeline, and branch off a new development
codeline. For example, Figure 2 shows a development codeline promoted to a release codeline (“ver1”) and branched into another development codeline
(“projA”). Each release codeline starts out as a development codeline, and development moves from codeline to codeline.

IMAGE – 2

The promotion scheme suffers from two crippling drawbacks: (1) it requires the policy of a codeline to change, which is never easy to communicate to everyone;
(2) it requires developers to relocate their work from one codeline to another, which is error-prone and time-consuming. 90% of SCM “process” is enforcing
codeline promotion to compensate for the lack of a mainline. Process is streamlined and simplified when you use a mainline model. With a
mainline, contributors’ workspaces and environments are stable for the duration of their tasks at hand, and no additional administrative overhead is incurred as
software products move forward to maturity.

4. Branching
Branching, the creation of variant codelines from other codelines, is the most problematic area of SCM. Different SCM tools support branching in markedly
different ways, and different policies require that branching be used in still more different ways. We found the following guidelines helpful when branching (and
sometimes when avoiding branching):·

Branch only when necessary. Every branch is more work – more builds, more changes to be propagated among codelines, more source file merges. If you keep this in mind every time you consider making a branch you may avoid sprouting unnecessary branches.
· Don’t copy when you mean to branch. An alternative to using your SCM tool’s branching mechanism is to copy a set of source files from one codeline and
check them in to another as new files. Don’t think that you can avoid the costs of branching by simply copying. Copying incurs all the headaches of branching –
additional entities and increased complexity – but without the benefit of your SCM system’s branching support. Don’t be fooled: even “read-only” copies
shipped off to another development group “for reference only” often return with changes made. Use your SCM system to make branches when you spin off parts
or all of a codeline.
· Branch on incompatible policy. There is one simple rule to determine if a codeline should be branched: it should be branched when its users need different
check-in policies. For example, a product release group may need a check-in policy that enforces rigorous testing, whereas a development team may need a
policy that allows frequent check-ins of partially tested changes. This policy divergence calls for a codeline branch. When one development group doesn’t
wish to see another development group’s changes, that is also a form of incompatible policy: each group should have its own branch.
· Branch late. To minimize the number of changes that need to be propagated from one branch to another, put off creating a branch as long as possible. For
example, if the mainline branch contains all the new features ready for a release, do as much testing and bug fixing in it as you can before creating a release
branch. Every bug fixed in the mainline before the release branch is created is one less change needing propagation between branches.
· Branch instead of freeze. On the other hand, if testing requires freezing a codeline, developers who have pending changes will have to sit on their changes
until the testing is complete. If this is the case, branch the codeline early enough so that developers can check in and get on with their work.

5. Change Propagation
Once you have branched codelines, you face the chore of propagating file changes across branches. This is rarely a trivial task, but there are some things you can do to
keep it manageable.
· Make original changes in the branch that has evolved the least since branching. It is much easier to merge a change from a file that is close to the common
ancestor than it is to merge a change from a file that has diverged considerably. This is because the change in the file that has diverged may be built upon
changes that are not being propagated, and those unwanted changes can confound the merge process. You can minimize the merge complexity by making
original changes in the branch that is the most stable. For example, if a release codeline is branched from a mainline, make a bug fix first in the release line and
then merge it into the mainline. If you make the bug fix in the mainline first, subsequently merging it into a release codeline may require you to back out
other, incompatible changes that aren’t meant to go into the release codeline.
· Propagate early and often. When it’s feasible to propagate a change from one branch to another (that is, if the change wouldn’t violate the target branch’s
policy), do it sooner rather than later. Postponed and batched change propagations can result in stunningly complex file merges.
· Get the right person to do the merge. The burden of change propagation can be lightened by assigning the responsibility to the engineer best prepared to resolve
file conflicts. Changes can be propagated by (a) the owner of the target files, (b) the person who make the original changes, or (c) someone else. Either (a) or (b)
will do a better job than (c).

6. Builds
A build is the business of constructing usable software from original source files. Builds are more manageable and less prone to problems when a few key practices are
observed:
· Source + tools = product. The only ingredients in a build should be source files and the tools to which they are input. Memorized procedures and yellow stickies
have no place in this equation. Given the same source files and build tools, the resulting product should always be the same. If you have rote setup procedures,
automate them in scripts. If you have manual setup steps, document them in build instructions. And document all tool specifications, including OS, compilers, include files, link libraries, make programs, and executable paths.
· Check in all original source. When software can’t be reliably reproduced from the same ingredients, chances are the ingredient list is incomplete. Frequently
overlooked ingredients are makefiles, setup scripts, build scripts, build instructions, and tool specifications. All of these are the source you build with.
Remember: source + tools = product.
· Segregate built objects from original source. Organize your builds so that the directories containing original source files are not polluted by built objects.
Original source files are those you create “from an original thought process” with a text editor, an application generator, or any other interactive tool. Built objects
are all the files that get created during your build process, including generated source files. Built objects should not go into your source code directories.
Instead, build them into a directory tree of their own. This segregation allows you to limit the scope of SCM-managed directories to those that contain only
source. It also corrals the files that tend to be large and/or expendable into one location, and simplifies disk space management for builds.
· Use common build tools. Developers, test engineers, and release engineers should all use the same build tools. Much time is wasted when a developer
cannot reproduce a problem found in testing, or when the released product varies from what was tested. Remember: source + tools = product.
· Build often. Frequent, end-to-end builds with regression testing (“sanity” builds) have two benefits: (1) they reveal integration problems introduced by check-ins,
and (2) they produce link libraries and other built objects that can be used by developers. In an ideal world, sanity builds would occur after every check-in, but
in an active codeline it’s more practical to do them at intervals, typically nightly. Every codeline branch should be subject to regular, frequent, and complete builds
and regression testing, even when product release is in the distant future.
· Keep build logs and build outputs. For any built object you produce, you should be able to look up the exact operations (e.g., complete compiler flag and link
command text) that produced the last known good version of it. Archive build outputs and logs, including source file versions (e.g., a label), tool and OS
version info, compiler outputs, intermediate files, built objects, and test results, for future reference. As large software projects evolve, components are handed
off from one group to another, and the receiving group may not be in a position to begin builds of new components immediately. When they do begin to build
new components, they will need access to previous build logs in order to diagnose the integration problems they encounter.

7. Process
It would take an entire paper, or several papers, to explore the full scope of SCM process design and implementation, and many such papers have already been written. Furthermore, your shop has specific objectives and requirements that will be reflected in the process you implement, and we do not presume to know what those are. In our experience, however, some process concepts are key to any SCM implementation:
· Track change packages. Even though each file in a codeline has its revision history, each revision in its history is only useful in the context of a set of related
files. The question “What other source files were changed along with this particular change to foo.c?” can’t be answered unless you track change
packages, or sets of files related by a logical change. Change packages, not individual file changes, are the visible manifestation of software development.
Some SCM systems track change packages for you; if yours doesn’t, write an interface that does.
· Track change package propagations. One clear benefit of tracking change packages is that it becomes very easy propagate logical changes (e.g., bug fixes)
from one codeline branch to another. However, it’s not enough to simply propagate change packages across branches; you must keep track of which
change packages have been propagated, which propagations are pending, and which codeline branches are likely donors or recipients of propagations.
Otherwise you’ll never be able to answer the question “Is the fix for bug X in the release Y codeline?” Again, some SCM systems track change package
propagations for you, whereas with others you’ll have to write your own interface to do it. Ultimately, you should never have to resort to “diffing” files to
figure out if a change package has been propagated between codelines.

· Distinguish change requests from change packages. “What to do” and “what was done” are different data entities. For example, a bug report is a “what to do”
entity and a bug fix is a “what was done” entity. Your SCM process should distinguish between the two, because in fact there can be a one-to-many
relationship between change requests and change packages.
· Give everything an owner. Every process, policy, document, product, component, codeline, branch, and task in your SCM system should have an
owner. Owners give life to these entities by representing them; an entity with an owner can grow and mature. Ownerless entities are like obstacles in an ant trail
– the ants simply march around them as if they weren’t there.
· Use living documents. The policies and procedures you implement should be described in living documents; that is, your process documentation should be as
readily available and as subject to update as your managed source code. Documents that aren’t accessible are useless; documents that aren’t updateable
are nearly so. Process documents should be accessible from all of your development environments: at your own workstation, at someone else’s
workstation, and from your machine at home. And process documents should be easily updateable, and updates should be immediately available.

8. Conclusion
Best practices in SCM, like best practices anywhere, always seem obvious once you’ve used them. The practices discussed in this paper have worked well for us, but
we recognize that no single, short document can contain them all. So we have presented the practices that offer the greatest return and yet seem to be violated more
often than not. We welcome the opportunity to improve this document, and solicit both challenges to the above practices as well as the additions of new ones.

10. References
Berczuk, Steve. “Configuration Management Patterns”, 1997. Available at
http://www.bell-labs.com/cgi-user/OrgPatterns/OrgPatterns?ConfigurationManagementPatterns.
Compton, Stephen B, Configuration Management for Software, VNR Computer
Library, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1993.
Continuus Software Corp., “Work Area Management”, Continuus/CM: Change
Management for Software Development. Available at
http://www.continuus.com/developers/developersACE.html.
Dart, Susan, “Spectrum of Functionality in Configuration Management Systems”,
Software Engineering Institute, 1990. Available at
http://www.sei.cmu.edu/technology/case/scm/tech_rep/TR11_90/TOC_TR11_90.html

Jameson, Kevin, Multi Platform Code Management, O’Reilly & Associates, 1994
Linenbach, Terris, “Programmers’ Canvas: A pattern for source code management”
1996. Available at http://www.rahul.net/terris/ProgrammersCanvas.htm.
Lyon, David D, Practical CM, Raven Publishing, 1997
McConnell, Steve, “Best Practices: Daily Build and Smoke Test”,
IEEE Software, Vol. 13, No. 4, July 1996
van der Hoek, Andre, Hall, Richard S., Heimbigner, Dennis, and Wolf, Alexander L.,
“Software Release Management”, Proceedings of the 6th European Software
Engineering Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, 1997.

10. Author

Laura Wingerd
Perforce Software, Inc.
wingerd@perforce.com
Christopher Seiwald
Perforce Software, Inc.
seiwald@perforce.com

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What Is Software Configuration Management, its importance & how to implement it?

software-configuration-management

Software engineers usually find coding to be the most satisfying aspect of their job. This is easy to understand because programming is a challenging, creative activity requiring extensive technical skills. It can mean getting to “play” with state-of-the-art tools, and it provides almost instant gratification in the form of immediate feedback. Programming is the development task that most readily comes to mind when the profession of software engineering is mentioned.
That said, seasoned engineers and project managers realize that programmers are part of a larger team. All of the integral tasks, such as quality assurance and verification and validation, are behind-the-scenes activities necessary to turn standalone software into a useful and usable commodity. Software configuration management (SCM) falls into this category—it can’t achieve star status, like the latest “killer app,” but it is essential to project success. The smart software project manager highly values the individuals and tools that provide this service.
This chapter will answer the following questions about software configuration management.

What Is Software Configuration Management?
Software configuration management (SCM) is the organization of the components of a software system so that they fit together in a working order, never out of synch with each other. Those who have studied the best way to manage the configuration of software parts have more elegant responses.
Roger Pressman says that SCM is a “set of activities designed to control change by identifying the work products that are likely to change, establishing relationships among them, defining mechanisms for managing different versions of these work products, controlling the changes imposed, and auditing and reporting on the changes made.”>
We think that Pressman’s description is a better description because we often view SCM as meaning software change management.
Wayne Babich describes SCM as “the art of identifying, organizing, and controlling modifications to the software being built by a programming team. It maximizes productivity by minimizing mistakes.”>
The Software Engineering Institute says that it is necessary to establish and maintain the integrity of the products of the software project throughout the software life cycle. Activities necessary to accomplish this include identifying configuration items/units, systematically controlling changes, and maintaining the integrity and the traceability of the configuration throughout the software life cycle.
Military standards view configuration as the functional and/or physical characteristics of hardware/software as set forth in technical documentation and archives in a product. In identifying the items that need to be configured, we must remember that all project artifacts are candidates—documents, graphical models, prototypes, code, and any internal or external deliverable that can undergo change. In SW PM terminology, a configuration item might be a proposal/estimate or bid, project plan, risk management plan, quality assurance plan, CM plan itself, test plan, system requirements specification, system design document, review metric, code, test result, tool (editors, compilers, CASE), and so on. There are basic objects and aggregate objects to be configured. The number of relationships among them reflects the complexity of the configuration task.

Why Is SCM Important?
Software project managers pay attention to the planning and execution of configuration management, an integral task, because it facilitates the ability to communicate status of documents and code as well as changes that have been made to them. High-quality released software has been tested and used, making it a reusable asset and saving development costs. Reused components aren’t free, though—they require integration into new products, a difficult task without knowing exactly what they are and where they are.
CM enhances the ability to provide maintenance support necessary once the software is deployed. If software didn’t change, maintenance wouldn’t exist. Of course, changes do occur. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) says that software will be changed to adapt, perfect, or correct it. Pressman points out that new business, new customer needs, reorganizations, and budgetary or scheduling constraints may lead to software revision.
CM works for the project and the organization in other ways as well. It helps to eliminate confusion, chaos, double maintenance, the shared data problem, and the simultaneous update problem, to name but a few issues to be discussed in this chapter.

Who Is Involved in SCM?
Virtually everyone on a software project is affected by SCM. From the framers of the project plan to the final tester, we rely on it to tell us how to find the object with the latest changes. During development, when iterations are informal and frequent, little needs to be known about a change except what it is, who did it, and where it is. In deployment and baselining, changes must be prioritized, and the impact of a change upon all customers must be considered. A change control board (CCB) is the governing body for modifications after implementation.

How Can Software Configuration Be Implemented in Your Organization?
We used to say, “Make a plan and stick with it—never waffle,” and “Requirements must be frozen—how else will we know what to code?” Now, we say, “Plans are living documents—they will be in a continual state of change as project knowledge increases.” We now know that requirements are never frozen—they merge, morph, and evolve and become expanded, enhanced, and extended. As long as artifacts of software development can undergo change, we will need some method of managing the change.
Because SCM is such a key tool in improving the quality of delivered products, understanding it and how to implement it in your organization and on your projects is a critical success factor. This chapter will review SCM plan templates and provide you with a composite SCM plan template for use in any of your projects. We will cover the issues and basics for a sound software project CM system, including these:

  • SCM principles
  • The four basic requirements for an SCM system
  • Planning and organizing for SCM
  • SCM tools
  • Benefits of SCM
  • Path to SCM implementation

 

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